Chapter 1: Simple Patterns
1 V
The verb can be used on its own, without anything following it.
  Verb group  
SubjectVerbAdjunct (optional)
The meetinghad ended.  
The amount of desert in the worldis increasing.  
Shelaughedsoftly.
Phrasal verbs: V P
  Verb groupParticle
SubjectVerb  
The subjectdidn't comeup.
All the lightswentoff.
Hesatdown.

Many verbs are used with this pattern only when something involved in the action, apart from the Subject, has already been mentioned or indicated. For example, in the case of refuse, you need to have been told what someone refuses to do, as in A colleague urged him to see a psychiatrist, but he refused. Some verbs of this kind fit into one of the meaning groups below; the remainder are listed in section (ii) of the `Verbs with other meanings' group.

Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

1 The `move' group 9 The `change' group 17 The `come back' group
2 The `turn' group 10 The `benefit' group 18 The `think' and `watch' group
3 The `leave' group 11 The `matter' group 19 The `speak' group
4 The `hang around' group 12 The `succeed' and `fail' group 20 The `call' group
5 The `join in' group 13 The `operate' group 21 The `ring' group
6 The `compete' group 14 The `start' and `break' group 22 The `laugh' group
7 The `carry on' group 15 The `begin' and `stop' group 23 The `knock' group
8 The `back out' group 16 The `occur' group 24 Verbs with other meanings
2 V is the second most frequent verb pattern in English. The lists below contain only verbs which are among the 500 most frequently occurring verbs in the Bank of English. A typical Subject is indicated in brackets where this is helpful.

Verbs with the pattern pl-n V or pl-n V P are reciprocal verbs, which are described in Chapter 6 and are not included in this section.

1 The `move' group

These verbs are concerned with moving or being somewhere. This includes:

  • moving in a particular direction e.g. advance, back up
  • moving in a particular way e.g. run
  • being in a particular position e.g. lie around
  • arriving somewhere e.g. arrive, land, show up
  • staying somewhere e.g. remain, stay, stick around
  • ceasing to move e.g. stop
  • part of something breaking off e.g. break off, fall off

With many of these verbs, for example arrive and close in, the place involved must have been mentioned or indicated.

  • As they advanced, the boys beamed their flashlights in every direction.
  • She returned to the cabin. George had just arrived.
  • He found a part of the arrow that had broken off.
  • The Ancients went to bed when the sun went down and arose as the sun rose.
  • I don't smoke, so there are no dirty ashtrays lying around to upset her.
  • The elevator began to move again, but now it moved up.
  • Now that you've reminded me I guess I can stick around for four or five days longer.
  • The car slowed and stopped.
The verbs gather and spread out always have a plural Subject.
  • The forces will then spread out, securing roads and protecting food convoys to the interior.
advance appear approach arrive back charge climb be closing collapse collect come dance drop emerge enter fall fly follow freeze gather be hanging jump land mount move pass remain return rise rise (The sun) run set (The sun) settle (The dust) (not) show sit slip spread stand stay stick stop swim travel be waiting (A car) walk
back up bear down break in break off (Part of something) break through check in close in come along come down come in come through come up come up (The sun) fall away (Part of something) fall back fall in fall off (Part of something) fall out (Your hair) get about get around get in get out get up go down (The sun) go down (A ship) go out go under hang back be hanging up knock around/about lie around/about move about move along move in pass by pour in 3 press on pull in pull over pull up push in push on report back roll in roll up run around show up sign in spread out stand aside stand up stay in stay on stay out stick around touch down (An aircraft) turn back turn in turn off turn out turn up
2 The `turn' group

These verbs indicate that someone or something changes posture, arrangement, or orientation, but does not move from one place to another. This includes:

  • turning
  • opening and closing
  • continually moving e.g. beat, shake
  • moving a limb or limbs e.g. hit out, kick
  • standing up and sitting down
  • falling down
  • Kelly's heart was beating so hard she could barely breathe.
  • When I saw him lying on the floor, I thought he had just fallen over and hit himself on the head.
  • A hand groped swiftly and expertly in his bush-jacket pocket; he hit out wildly.
  • At this moment the screen door opened and John McGinnis emerged.
  • Her eyes were full of fear, and her hand shook slightly as she ate.
  • He stood up and went to the door.
  • She turned and stared at him.
  • Ross hit the brakes but the car turned over and crashed into a tree.
beat (Your heart) beat (A bird's wings) close drop fall fly (Your hair) kick move open relax (Your muscles) shake shut sit stand stretch struggle turn
fall down fall over get down get up hit out kick out lie back lie down open out ride up sit down sit up stand up stretch out turn around/round turn over
3 The `leave' group

These verbs are concerned with leaving a place, position, or situation. We include here want out, which indicates that someone wants to escape from a situation. With these verbs, the place, position, or situation involved must usually have been mentioned or indicated.

  • `Go away!' Erin shouted.
  • Menti shook hands with her and left.
  • The senator said Arnett had been in Vietnam after the US troops pulled out.
  • The rebels are trying to force the President to resign.
disappear escape flee go leave move resign retire withdraw
4 back away back off break away break out check out clear off clear out get away get off get out go away lift off make off move away move off move on move out move over move up pull away pull back pull out push off run away set forth set off set out stand down step down take off walk away walk out want out
4 The `hang around' group

These verbs are concerned with waiting, not doing much, or not acting.

  • We hung around for an hour as an endless stream of young people came in and out of the shop.
  • `Hang on,' Joe said. `I'll get you a bag.'
  • Isn't air travel too important for governments to stand by while the industry collapses?
  • What kept him? I've been waiting for hours.
wait
hang about hang around/round hang on hang out hold off hold on lie around/about sit around/about sit by stand back stand by wait around/about wait in wait up
5 The `join in' group

These verbs are concerned with getting involved in an activity or situation. The activity or situation must usually have been mentioned or indicated.

  • She got up to prepare supper. `Can I help?' asked Polly.
  • People soon stop talking when I join in.
  • Those who were fit and of fighting age hurried to join up.
  • People were asking him to step in and save the country.
help
come in help out join in join up jump in move in stand in step in
6 The `compete' group

These verbs are concerned with being involved in a competition of some kind. The competition must usually have been mentioned or indicated.

  • Boys, grades 5-12, and girls, grades 9-12, are eligible to compete.
  • He is `highly unlikely' to be fit to run in Birmingham in 10 days' time.
  • A presidential election is due in March. The current President, who has ruled the islands for 15 years, has judged it wise not to stand.
compete enter play run stand swim
7 The `carry on' group

These verbs are concerned with continuing to do something, or doing something you have planned. The activity or project involved must have been mentioned or indicated.

  • It is understood that although Jo was not seriously hurt, she was too shaken to carry on.
5 If you are thinking of selling at auction, here are some key terms and points to bear in mind before you go ahead.
carry on follow through get on go ahead go on press on push ahead push on struggle on
8 The `back out' group

These verbs are concerned with not doing something you had planned or promised to do, or being reluctant to get involved in something. The activity or situation involved must have been mentioned or indicated.

  • It's too late, we made a deal and we're exchanging documents, we can't back out now.
  • After a month of increasingly violent student demonstrations, the government has decided, once again, to climb down.
  • Barron invited her to accompany him to the Kempton races and she agreed. But she caught 'flu and had to cry off.
  • GA's new plan is aimed at galvanising potential buyers who have been holding back for fear of getting caught in the same net.
back away back down back off back out climb down cry off drop out hang back hold back pull back pull out
9 The `change' group

These verbs are concerned with changing. This includes:

  • increasing and decreasing
  • improving and deteriorating e.g. improve, suffer
  • becoming older e.g. age, grow up
  • undergoing a physical or chemical change e.g. break down, cook, set
  • These substances break down in the liver to form toxins.
  • Through the 10 million years of human evolution, the Earth's climate has changed considerably.
  • It is worth knowing that many hotel and tour prices drop dramatically after 1 May.
  • He can't face the fact that we're growing up and that we want to do our own thing.
  • The construction business appears to be picking up.
  • Then he saw the line was perfect, and he relaxed.
  • Place the pan under a hot grill for a further three or four minutes until the omelette has set and the top is golden.
  • Your home life may suffer because of work pressures.
advance age break (Your voice) build (A quality) burn (Fuel) burn (Food) burn (Your skin) change climb cook (Food) decline develop divide drop expand fail (Your health) fall freeze grow improve increase lift mount recover reduce relax rise set slip stretch suffer turn (The tide) turn (A game) vary wear
6 break down build up clear up (The weather) close up come along come down die back die down draw in (The nights) drop off fall apart fall away fall off fill out freeze over go down go off (Food) go up grow out grow up be looking up mount up move along move down move up pick up rise up shoot up spread out turn down wear down wear out
10 The `benefit' group

These verbs indicate that something happens to the Subject or is done to the Subject. For example, if a city falls, it is captured by an enemy. This includes something being learned about, perceived, or found. For example, if news gets out, it becomes known; if the sun comes out, clouds move away from it and it becomes visible. We include here wait: if you say that something can wait, you mean you will not deal with it until later.

  • If subsidies and tariffs are removed, each country can specialise in those things it grows or makes best, and everybody will benefit.
  • The veins in the liver block up, and all sorts of damage follows.
  • The sun came out briefly, and then dipped behind the dull grey clouds again.
  • A top-level security investigation has been mounted to find out how the news got out.
  • When there is a demand, a product will sell.
benefit break (News) clear (A cheque) emerge fall (A president) fall (A city) fall (A wicket) fill (A container) freeze (A pipe) hang (A criminal) mark (A surface) run (A newspaper article) sell be showing (A film) suffer (can) wait
block up come along come back come out (A fact) come out (The sun) come up (A topic) come up (A court case) fill up fly (Rumours) freeze up get about (News) get around/round (News) get out (News) go around/round (A story) go in (The sun) go out (A message) go out (A programme) go up (A new building) lose out open up show up slip through turn up wash out (A stain)
11 The `matter' group

These verbs indicate that someone or something has a particular quality or is in a particular state. This includes:

  • having a particular shape e.g. fall away
  • being judged to have a particular quality e.g. appeal, matter
  • being able to do something e.g. extend, keep
  • Well, you're alive, and that's what counts.
  • If you need a table which extends to accommodate extra guests, look for one with an extra leaf or slot-in extension.
  • To the south the garden falls away in terraces to an ornamental lake.
  • She was getting on, but she could still see straight, believe you me.
  • My throat hurts.
  • The house was run down but that didn't matter, she was out every night.
  • What makes her stand out is her personality.
appeal burn carry (Sound) count (will) do be expecting extend (A table) fit freeze go help hold hurt (Part of your body) be hurting keep (Food) last lie list (A ship) (not) matter pay (A job) pay (Crime) ring rise (Land) shake (Your voice) show smoke suffer swim (The room) swim (Your head) turn (A road) vary (will not) wash
7 add up beat down (The sun) come through (A quality) drop away (Land) fall away (Land) be getting on jump out stand out stick out
12 The `succeed' and `fail' group

These verbs are concerned with being successful, failing, or coping. The Subject may be human or inanimate. We include here verbs such as hold and fall down, which indicate how successful an argument or theory is. We also include go down 4, go up, move down, and move up, which indicate that someone or something moves to a lower or higher rank.

With many of these verbs, for example fail 1 and succeed 1 (which have a human Subject), the action or thing involved must have been mentioned or indicated.

  • Many are finding it difficult to cope because of unpaid wages and lost savings.
  • New business schools at Oxford and Cambridge promise fresh methods of management education. Can they deliver?
  • Joseph's return looks the only likely change from the team which drew at Sheffield United in midweek.
  • Other swimmers got him ashore, but attempts to revive him failed.
  • This model falls down, though, when we look for real examples of the application of scientific knowledge to commerce and industry.
  • The gamble has paid off. Ratings have shot up beyond all projections.
  • I've made a big effort to improve my discipline and, to a large extent, I think I've succeeded.
  • Didn't I tell you things would work out?
have arrived cope deliver draw fail hold (An argument) lead lose manage miss pass qualify recover be struggling succeed survive win work
bear up break through catch up come off come out (A photo) fall behind fall down (An argument) fall through get ahead get by get in (A political party) get on get through get through (A law) go down go down (A team) go through (A law) go under go up (A team) hang on hold on hold up hold up (An argument) keep up (not) measure up move down move up pass out (A cadet) pay off pull through sell out (A performance) stand up (Evidence) take off take over turn around/round win out win through work out
13 The `operate' group

These verbs indicate that something such as a machine, substance, or organization functions.

  • The drug acts by binding fats coming through the digestive tract.
  • The bomb went off as a police vehicle was passing nearby.
  • Keep away from the cutters when the machine is running.
  • In severe weather, railways often continue to operate when roads and airports are closed.
8 act (A force or substance) focus (Your eyes) go meet (A committee) operate roll (Cameras) run sit (Parliament) take (A dye) work
go off (A bomb)
14 The `start' and `break' group

These verbs indicate that something such as a machine, object, or organization starts to function, or ceases to function or exist. We include here verbs indicating that someone dies.

  • I was worried that the rope might break.
  • Many of the victims are students who died when their university building collapsed.
  • The green light went out. A red light came on.
  • She looked frail and tired. I hoped the tablets would kick in soon.
  • His new shop opens today at 659 Fulham Road.
  • Each year from then on he helped with the harvesting and sorting until he passed away in 1981.
  • They climbed into the van and, for once, the engine started at the first turn of the key.
blow (A fuse) blow (A tyre) break close collapse die disappear fail fall (Someone) fire (An engine) give go (Your sight) go (A light bulb) go (Someone) open shut start stop
blow out (A tyre) blow up break down break up burn down burn up close down come on cut out fall apart fall down give out go down go off go on go out (A light) go up kick in pack up pass away (Someone) pass on (Someone) run down shut down start up
15 The `begin' and `stop' group

These verbs are concerned with beginning or stopping. They can be divided into two groups.

(i) Verbs with inanimate Subjects. This includes:

  • events or situations beginning or ending e.g. begin, finish
  • natural or abstract things coming into existence or disappearing e.g. clear, develop
  • a type of thing coming into existence or disappearing e.g. appear, die out
  • That year the first illustrated weekly appeared in London.
  • The talks began on Monday and continued late into Tuesday evening.
  • The fog cleared and the sun came out.
  • After the 18th treatment the symptoms disappeared completely.
  • Senior officials have said that oil supplies will run out at the end of the week.
  • The rain had stopped.
  • The initial euphoria may wear off quickly, however.
appear arrive begin break (Day) break (A wave) break (A storm) clear (Fog) develop die (An emotion) disappear emerge end fail (Your courage) fall (Night) finish form lift (Fog) open start stop
9 blow over blow up (A storm) break down break off break out clear up come on come out (A new product) die away (A sound) die out go out (A fire) kick off let up run out sell out set in wear away wear off

(ii) Verbs with human Subjects. This includes:

  • starting or stopping in general e.g. start over, stop
  • starting or stopping doing a particular kind of thing e.g. shut up, strike up

With verbs concerned with starting or stopping in general, the activity involved must have been mentioned or indicated.

  • We'll never finish in time.
  • She rang off and Devlin replaced the receiver.
  • Shut up and let me think, can't you?
  • So how can I quit and start over in another profession?
  • Just as we had finally fallen asleep, a street band struck up and firecrackers exploded on every corner.
begin finish start stop
get off give over give up hang up kick off knock off lay off lead off leave off ring off shut up sign off sign on start over strike up (A band) switch off
16 The `occur' group

These verbs indicate that something exists or happens. This includes:

  • sounds and natural phenomena occurring e.g. blow, play
  • something continuing to exist or happen e.g. last
  • something being about to occur e.g. approach, threaten
  • time passing e.g. go by, wear on

We also include here be lacking, which indicates that something does not exist.

  • Evening was approaching.
  • Tonight the Palace was dark and a bitter wind blew.
  • They're not in a position to go back to their homes because their homes no longer exist.
  • But as the hours went by, they began to grow anxious.
  • `What's going on?' demanded Bunbury.
  • There had been a gentleness in Lonnie that was lacking in his twin brother.
  • The Loire Valley was beautiful, but Janet's contentment didn't last.
  • The accident occurred when the south-bound Number Four train on the Lexington Avenue line jumped the rails as the train switched tracks.
  • There was music playing on a lower floor.
approach arrive be blow (The wind) burn (A fire) burn (A light) come continue exist grow (Plants) happen hold be lacking last obtain occur pass (Time) play (Music) remain repeat result return run (A play) stand strike survive threaten
10 beat down (The rain) close in come about come along come around/round come up be coming up draw on (The evening) go ahead go before go by (Time) go on go up (A cheer) last out live on open up (An opportunity) ring out (A shot) rise up (A cheer) wear on (Time)
17 The `come back' group

These verbs indicate that a type of thing becomes popular or stops being popular. We include here date, which indicates that something comes to be regarded as old-fashioned.

  • Tight trousers are coming back.
  • Liz has come up with some original eye-stopping designs that won't date and are super comfortable.
date
catch on come back come in go out
18 The `think' and `watch' group

These verbs are concerned with thinking, perceiving, and paying attention. The thing or matter involved must usually have been mentioned or indicated.

  • `Are you going to the Christmas lunch? Or are you going to come straight back?' `We haven't decided yet.'
  • Passers-by looked on aghast as the driver mowed her down.
  • Mack smiled, but she didn't notice.
  • She pauses and thinks for a moment.
  • If the players are interesting, people will turn out and watch.
agree believe care concentrate decide follow hear hope judge know listen look (not) mind mind notice observe realize recall reflect remember (cannot) remember see stare think watch wonder worry
catch on listen in listen out look ahead look back look on look round sit up think back
19 The `speak' group

These verbs are concerned with saying something. The thing or matter involved must usually have been mentioned or indicated. We include here break in and cut in, which indicate that someone interrupts someone else.

  • Arvo cut in swiftly. `I know about quite a lot of things but I don't always talk about them.'
  • It matters more than you realize. Let me explain.
  • More companies than we know about get stung, but they are usually too embarrassed to own up.
  • `This is your last chance,' her father said. Erin didn't reply.
  • He never spoke unless he was spoken to.
11 accept accuse agree answer argue (not) argue ask begin comment complain conclude continue decline explain finish insist lie promise propose refuse reply report respond order shout sing speak talk tell
answer back ask around break in carry on cut in fire away go on hit back hit out let on open up own up report back shout out sign off sound off speak out speak up strike back talk back
20 The `call' group

These verbs are concerned with visiting, phoning, or writing to someone. The person involved must have been mentioned or indicated.

  • Just before school closed yesterday afternoon two policemen in plain clothes had called.
  • In the evenings Beatty would drop by to dine with her or take her out for a drive.
  • Hoffman said he would ring back at 4 p.m.
  • `I'll write,' he promised. call reply ring visit write
call back call in call up come around/round drop by drop in look in ring back ring in ring round ring up stop by stop off write back write in write off
21 The `ring' group

These verbs indicate that something makes a sound.

  • When the final whistle blew, a lot of fans came onto the pitch.
  • Well, when the alarm went off, everyone ran for the door.
  • She could hear a record playing.
  • Davin pressed the button and heard a bell ring inside.
beat blow go knock (Pipes) play (A musical instrument) play (A record) ring sing sound strike (A clock)
go off
22 The `laugh' group

These verbs indicate that someone makes a sound or puts on an expression, or that someone's body does something involuntarily.

  • If you find it hard to drop off at night but are wary of sleeping pills, this could be the answer.
  • He launched into a fine imitation of Joan when she is nagging. We both laughed.
  • Then they both drank so much that they passed out in their hotel.
  • She smiled weakly.
12 cry jump laugh roll (Your eyes) run (Your nose) sleep smile start
break down come around/round come to cry out drop off fall about get off pass out throw up
23 The `knock' group

These verbs are concerned with hitting, holding, or exerting force on something. The thing involved must have been mentioned or indicated.

  • Jupe caught his arm and held on.
  • Erin stopped outside Room 13 and knocked.
  • Wheeler clenched his jaw, caught Baker's shirt under the neck and pulled with all his strength, dragging Baker back from the edge.
kick knock pull push
bear down hang on hit back hold on
24 Verbs with other meanings

There are many other verbs with this pattern. They can be divided into three groups.

(i) Verbs where something else involved in the action does not need to have been mentioned or indicated already. This includes:

  • everyday activities e.g. dress, wash
  • ways of earning a living e.g. act, teach

The Subject usually indicates a human being.

  • At 16, she failed to graduate, left school and announced to her family that she wanted to act.
  • I blew up sometimes, told him to shut up, 'cause he was so nasty.
  • From an early age he loved to draw and paint.
  • Rupert Welch scored twice for Southgate.
  • But before you sell up and move, you should look long and hard at your hopes and motives.
  • Members of the third group have a tendency to show off, to dramatize almost every situation.
  • I unpacked my small case, washed and changed.
  • I got up early every morning and went to work and worked hard all day.
act advertise blow break breed change clean conduct cook count demonstrate direct draw dress drink drive earn feed fight fire fish hide hold indicate (A driver) lay (Hens) mix negotiate operate pack paint perform play read ride rise (A people) run (Dye) save score serve settle shoot smoke strike (Workers) strike (A criminal) struggle teach trade train wash work write
13 act up add up blow up carry on cast off change down change up clean up clear away clear up come around/round come forward come out dress down dress up fight back give in move on pack up pay out (An insurance policy) pay up play around play up rise up sell out sell up settle down settle in settle up shoot up show off sit up sleep around slip up step back stay out (Strikers) strike out sweep up (cannot) turn back turn over walk out (Workers) wash up watch out work out

(ii) Verbs where something else involved in the action must have been mentioned or indicated already.

The Subject usually indicates a human being.

  • I actually went and had a look round the school, but I didn't particularly like the people and I decided I wasn't going to apply.
  • We are prepared to attack, if necessary, tomorrow.
  • Oh God. Patients' records are sacrosanct. Hilde will go berserk when she finds out.
  • For Kirston it was very definitely a relief to be away from her old school where she felt she really didn't fit in.
  • When the police investigated they could find no one among the neighbours who had noticed anything wrong.
  • Suppose we meet somewhere for a drink? I'll pay.
  • I went to Dent's to get some more books 'cos I've run out.
The verbs demand and go around have this pattern mainly in one fairly fixed phrase, as shown in the examples below.
  • She could be very charming when the occasion demanded.
  • The food queues have become a daily occurrence across the country. There is never enough to go round and tempers are frayed.
apply attack attend belong bother cast celebrate charge check choose claim compete contribute count defend demand dominate drink eat follow hurt investigate lead learn move pass pay prepare publish qualify receive repeat reply (A team) respond rule search sell sign stick (A name) stick (A charge) sweep switch tell (The strain) try vote
change over check up cut back cut down do without drink up find out fit in go around/round go without hit back hold out lock up miss out move over play along run out sell out sing along strike back switch off switch on switch over take over

(iii) Verbs where the other thing or person involved is unspecified or general. For example, if people want to adopt, they want to adopt an unspecified child; people who steal take things in general.

14 Some of the verbs in the previous lists sometimes have this meaning, especially when they are used in the present tense or in the to-infinitive form. The following verbs are ones which frequently have this meaning.
  • He could build a two-story addition to the rear of the house, providing he didn't add on at ground level.
  • Under the present law only married couples or single people are allowed to adopt.
  • `Have you eaten yet?' `Yes, thanks. I had dinner on the road.'
  • Her book analyses why women kill and how the law treats them.
adopt eat be dating deliver (can) hear injure invest kill learn marry please (can) see sell share steal study
add on
Structure information

a) This structure has no passive.

b) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

2 V n
The verb is followed by a noun group. The passive pattern is be V-ed.

This pattern has three structures:

  • Structure I: Verb with Complement
    He was my friend.
  • Structure II: Verb with Object
    The thieves broke a window.
  • Structure III: Verb with Adjunct
    Children don't talk that way.
Structure I: Verb with Complement
V n
  Verb groupnoun group
SubjectVerbComplement
My husbandisa doctor.
Hecan leavea free man.
Iwon't playthe hypocrite.

Verbs with this structure belong to the following meaning groups:

I.1 The `be' group I.2 The `become' group I.3 The `seem' group 15
I.1 The `be' group

These verbs indicate that a person or thing is something. They are all link verbs (see Chapter 5). We include here verbs such as comprise 2 and make up, where the Subject indicates the parts, members, or elements of something, and comprise 1, where the Complement indicates the parts of something.

  • That story is a good example of Crane's greatness as a writer.
  • How many players comprise a team in netball?
  • The information pack comprises 15 single sheets, each devoted to a separate subject.
  • The proposal said the expanded brigade could form the nucleus of a European army.
  • Do you think he'd make a good president?
  • French President Fran=c6ois Mitterrand said the treaty represented a major breakthrough in disarmament and arms control.
The verbs form 6 and represent have the passive pattern be V-ed by n. The verbs comprise 2 and compose have the passive pattern be V-ed of n. The verb constitute has two passives: be V-ed by n and be V-ed of n. The phrasal verb make up has the passive pattern be V-ed P of n.
  • The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells called neurons.
  • The Chinese character for wise leader is made up of three symbols.
Note that because comprise 1 and comprise 2 represent the relationship between a whole and its parts in opposite ways, the active of comprise 1 and the passive of comprise 2 have the same meaning.
  • The flat comprised a sitting room, bedroom, kitchen and bathroom.
  • This factory is comprised of just three rooms.
be compose comprise constitute form make prove remain represent stay
V n P and V P n (not pron)
make up
I.2 The `become' group

These verbs indicate that a person or thing becomes something. They are all link verbs (see Chapter 5).

  • She eventually gave up her job and became a full-time singer.
  • After about 10-15 minutes, the police quietly began forming a line across the road.
In the case of turn, the noun group is always singular but without a determiner.
  • Both turned informer and were the main prosecution witnesses in the trial of the other men.
become form make turn
I.3 The `seem' group

These verbs indicate that a person or thing seems to be something. The verb feel indicates how someone seems to themselves. They are all link verbs (see Chapter 5).

  • For the first year after the divorce I felt a real failure.
16 He seems a reasonable man.
  • That sounds a good idea.
appear feel look seem sound
I.4 The `act' group

These verbs indicate that someone behaves like a kind of person they are not. They are both link verbs (see Chapter 5). The noun group after the verb always begins with the.

  • The more the parents act the boss, the less control they seem to have and the more miserable they are.
act play
I.5 The `depart' group

These verbs are concerned with living, dying, or leaving somewhere. The Complement describes the condition or situation of the Subject during his or her life or at the time of dying or leaving. This is a productive use. The verbs listed here are the ones which are most frequently used in this way.

  • Lloyd departed a shaken man.
  • It is better to fight and run away than to die a hero.
depart die leave live retire
Structure information: Verb with Complement

a) The noun group is the Complement.

b) Only a few verbs are used in the passive, as indicated in meaning group I.1 above. The prepositional phrase, by n or of n is the prepositional Complement.

c) There is only one phrasal verb with this structure, make up. The active pattern is V P n. The passive pattern is be V-ed P of n.

Structure II: Verb with Object
Active voice: V n
  Verb groupnoun group
SubjectVerbObject
I fear no-one.
A number of insurgent groupshave formed an alliance.
Uniformed police on motor cycles headed the procession.
17
Passive voice: be V-ed
  Verb group  
SubjectVerbAdjunct (optional)
She had been freed on humanitarian grounds.
This venue is directly funded by the City Council.
Phrasal verbs
Active voice: V n P, V P n, V P P n
  Verb groupnoun groupParticle
SubjectVerb...Object...Verb
  Eatthe biscuitsup.
A carranthemdown.
  Verb groupParticlenoun group
SubjectVerb   Object
Wemust closeupthe house.
Iwas gainingonhim.
Isetupthe computer.
  Verb groupParticleParticlenoun group
SubjectVerb     Object
Albertis cominguptohis 30th birthday.
The foodlivesuptothe restaurant's reputation.
Passive voice: be V-ed P
  Verb groupParticle  
SubjectVerb   Adjunct (optional)
The photosmust have been blownup.  
Thousands of operationsare carriedouteach year.

Most phrasal verbs have the patterns V n P and V P n (not pron). That is, the noun group comes either between the verb and the particle or after the particle. If the noun group comes after the particle, it cannot be a personal pronoun. You say
He filled it up
or He filled up the barrel
but you do not say He filled up it.

However, some phrasal verbs have the pattern V P n only. That is, the noun group comes after the particle and it is sometimes a personal pronoun. You say
He went without his lunch
or He went without it.

18 The two kinds of phrasal verbs are shown separately in the lists below.

Verbs with this structure cover a very wide range of meanings. There are also many types of relationship between the verb and the noun group. The meaning groups in this section are grouped into larger groups, each showing one kind of relationship between the verb and the noun group:

II.1 The `kill', `eat', and `fix' groups: concrete actions which change or affect the thing indicated by the noun group.
The soldiers destroyed the building.
II.2 The `bring', `buy', and `operate' groups: concrete or abstract actions which involve moving something, physically or metaphorically.
He sold his books.
II.3 The `cover', `follow', and `record' groups: concrete actions which do not change, move, or affect the thing indicated by the noun group.
They recorded the bird's song.
II.4 The `build' group: concrete actions which create the thing indicated by the noun group.
They built a large tower.
II.5 The `change', `concern', and `arrange' groups: abstract actions which change or affect the thing indicated by the noun group.
They increased the price.
II.6 The `watch', `break a record', and `approve' groups: abstract actions which do not affect the thing indicated by the noun group.
She watched her favourite television programme.
II.7 The `form' group: abstract actions which create the thing indicated by the noun group.
She established a hostel for battered wives.
II.8 The `start' and `stop' group: starting, finishing, or doing an action in a particular way. They abandoned the climb.
II.9 The `do' and `take', `turn a corner', and `open your eyes' groups: concrete and abstract actions expressed by the verb and the noun group together.
I had a bath.
II.10 The `face', `take three days', and `see' groups: relations of place and time expressed by the verb and the noun group together.
The meeting lasted an hour.
II.11 The `top', `develop', and `include' groups: qualities or roles of the Subject expressed by the verb and the noun group together.
The child developed several bad habits.
II.12 The `show', `allow', and `identify' groups: logical relations between the Subject and the Object.
The experiments confirm our theory.
II.13 The `hear', `interest', and `give an impression' groups: thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.
They heard a loud cry.
II.14 The `say', `describe', and `call' groups: acts of communication.
I asked three questions.

V n is by far the most frequent verb pattern in English. The lists below contain only verbs which are among the 400 most frequently occurring verbs in the Bank of English. A typical Object is indicated in brackets where this is helpful.

Not all the verbs with this structure are used in the passive. Verbs which never or rarely occur in the passive are indicated with * in the lists below.

19
II.1 The `kill', `eat', and `fix' groups

These verbs are concerned with a concrete action or event which changes or affects the person or thing indicated by the Object. They can be divided into eight groups:

(i) The `kill' group
(ii) The `touch' group
(iii) The `eat' group
(iv) The `prepare' group
(v) The `fix' group
(vi) The `change' group
(vii) The `feed' group
(viii) The `protect' group

(i) The `kill' group

These verbs are concerned with harming, breaking, attacking, or destroying something or someone. We include here abandon, which indicates that someone is harmed by being left by someone.

  • Wobbly teeth in unsound gums are as much of a problem in adults as tooth decay. Toxins that attack the connective tissue and bone which support the teeth are to blame.
  • When I broke my left leg, I went to the gym for rehabilitation.
  • He filled in the hole the mine had left and resumed his search.
  • Summoned by his wife to remove a large, agile fly from the bathroom, Mr. Kiam admits to a frustrating time. `It finally lit on the door and I got it.'
  • One civilian and one soldier were killed.
  • Suddenly some ruffians laid into him and left the poor soul half dead.
  • In all, 18 warships, 187 aircraft and 2,400 servicemen were lost in an attack lasting no more than two hours.
  • The dog almost pulled the fence down to reach him.
  • I certainly feel stiff, as if I have been worked over by a few toughs.
The phrasal verb hit back has the pattern V n P only.
  • If somebody hits you you've got to hit them back, haven't you?
abandon (a child) attack attack (the opponent's goal) beat bind blow (a fuse) blow (a tyre) break burn cut destroy destroy (an animal) (usu passive) fell (a tree) (usu passive) fell (a person) fight (an army) fight (a person) fight (a boxer) fill force (a lock) get (an animal)* hang (a criminal) hit (something deliberately) hit (something by accident) hurt injure jump (a person) kill kill (pain)* lose (usu passive) miss oppose (a person) reject (a transplanted organ) remove (a stain) shoot (a person or animal) strike (a person or thing) strike (words)
V n P and V P n (not pron)
beat out (a fire) beat up (a person) blow out (a flame) blow up (a building) break down (a substance) break down (a door) break up (something whole) bring down (an aeroplane) burn down (a building) burn off (waste) burn up cross off (words) cross out (words) cut down (a tree) cut up do in (a person) do over (a place) do over (a person) eat away fight off (an enemy) fill in (a hole) finish off (an injured animal) hit back kill off lay out (a person) let down (a tyre) pick off (people or aircraft) 20 pull down (a building) push over put down (an animal) put out (a fire) run down (a pedestrian) run over (a pedestrian) shake down (a victim) shoot down (an aeroplane) shoot down (a person) strike down (a person) strike out (words) take apart (something whole) take down (a structure) take on (an opponent) take out (an enemy) wear away wear down wear out work over (a person) write off (a vehicle)
V P n and V P P n
beat up on (a person) go for (a person) lay into (a person) set upon (a person) (usu passive)
(ii) The `touch' group

These verbs are concerned with touching something. We include here avoid, which indicates that something is not touched, and get off, which is used to tell someone to stop touching you.

  • I felt the blankets, estimated their warmth.
  • Thousands of birds died because they could not get at their normal prey in water covered with a layer of ice.
  • The thieves did not touch the other paintings.
avoid (a vehicle) feel (an object) handle hit (a target) hold (a person) meet (an object)* press press (a button) (can) reach touch (not) touch (a person or thing)
V P n
get at get off
(iii) The `eat' group

These verbs are concerned with consuming something, or not consuming something.

  • Astronauts burn up a lot of calories just moving because they work hard against the pressurised suits.
  • The children went in, and ate the biscuits.
  • She made a brief attempt to give up smoking, but was said to be getting through 30 cigarettes a day.
  • Princess Anne won't touch alcohol, even at official functions, and toasts her mother in mineral water.
  • The waters of the River Ural have been used up by numerous industrial enterprises.
burn (fuel) drink (liquid) eat (food) have (food)* leave (food) take (food) (not) touch (food or drink) use (a supply of something) use (drugs)
V n P and V P n (not pron)
burn off (energy) burn up (fuel) drink up (liquid) eat up (food) finish off (food) finish up (food) get down (food) keep down (food) shoot up (heroin) take in (air or food) use up (a supply of something)
21
V P n
get through (a supply of something)
(iv) The `prepare' group

These verbs are concerned with preparing something for use.

  • The battery can even be charged, without having to take it out.
  • Cook the spring onions and mushrooms until soft.
  • I used to make my own bed up when I was at school.
  • Prepare the salad ingredients, but do not mix the salad until about 20 minutes before it is to be served.
  • I have had no difficulty in operating my VCR since I discovered that the technicians who set it up had done so incorrectly.
charge (a battery) cook (food) develop (photographs) dress (meat) fire (a pot) fix (a dye or photograph) lay (the table) make (a bed) prepare (food) sign (a document) sort (laundry) turn (wood) work (clay or metal)
V n P and V P n (not pron)
blow up (a tyre) break in (something new) charge up (a battery) lay out (a corpse) make up (a bed) put on (food) set up (a machine)
(v) The `fix' group

These verbs are concerned with mending something that is not in good condition. We include here bring round and bring to, which indicate that an unconscious person is returned to consciousness.

  • Ralph told me, after I'd passed out and he'd brought me round, that I'd taken off my shoes and danced on the table.
  • Mechanics took time off from building racing cars to fix the broken axle.
  • The house had been lovingly restored by a builder three years earlier, using only the best materials.
fill (a tooth) fix (something broken) fix (hair or clothes) maintain (a vehicle) point (a wall) restore (something) (not) touch (usu passive)
V n P and V P n (not pron)
bring round (an unconscious person) bring to (an unconscious person) clear up (a place) do up (a building) fix up (something)

The verbs mend and repair, which are not among the 400 most frequent verbs in English, also belong in this group.

(vi) The `change' group

These verbs are concerned with making something different in some other way. This includes:

22
  • opening or closing something e.g. close, open
  • changing the appearance of something e.g. mark, paint
  • making something larger or smaller e.g. extend, reduce
  • changing the shape or arrangement of something e.g. gather, throw
    • I am proud that we helped change the world.
    • I went to my dad's desk and I opened up his drawer.
    • She even painted the outside of the house, climbing up scaffolding.
    • She had taken in the grey dress so that it hugged her thin body more closely.
    • Lovelock threw a switch and water began to pump up into the ballast tanks.
    • The mountains are rich in marble and have been worked for at least two thousand years.
    affect age (a person's appearance) break (a silence) change change (a bed) clear (an area) close cut (a pack of cards) divide (people or things) draw (a curtain) extend gather (cloth) mark (a surface) open open (your shirt) paint (a wall) paint (your nails) pick (a lock) press (clothes) press (fruit) reduce (liquid) score (a surface) throw (a switch) try (a door) work (land/mine)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    clear out (a building or room) close up (a building) close up (a gap) do up (clothing) fill in (a shape) make up (your face) open up open up (a building) take in (a dress)
    (vii) The `feed' group

    These verbs are concerned with giving something to someone. The Object is the person who receives the thing given.

    • But if you arm the police isn't the likelihood that more criminals will go armed?
    • When I gave birth and fed my first baby, I felt the most intense emotion, and sense of happiness and pride, that I'd ever felt in my life.
    arm change (a baby) dress (a child) feed feed (a plant) serve supply treat (a patient) treat (a child)
    (viii) The `protect' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing something concrete to help or protect someone or something.

    • If persons are having difficulty getting started at a particular physical task, help them out.
    • The T cells would stop attacking the joint tissue and protect it instead.
    cover (a person under attack) defend help protect save
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    help out
    23
    II.2 The `bring', `buy', and `operate' groups

    These verbs are concerned with concrete or abstract actions which involve moving or holding something, physically or metaphorically, or with operating machinery or a vehicle. They can be divided into three groups:

    (i) The `bring' group
    (ii) The `buy' group
    (iii) The `operate' group

    (i) The `bring' group

    These verbs are concerned with moving or holding something. This includes:

    • putting something somewhere e.g. add, arrange, hang up
    • throwing or sending something somewhere e.g. drive (a ball), launch (a rocket)
    • carrying something e.g. bear, carry
    • accompanying someone or something e.g. deliver, drive (a passenger)
    • pulling something e.g. attract, pull
    • Heat the butter and oil in a large saucepan, then add the onion and crushed garlic.
    • The North pole will attract another magnet's North pole.
    • We requested an interview. He agreed, but we could not bring a tape recorder.
    • The boxes were to be carried by camels, of which Haig had three.
    • We found the house easily, just across a little bridge on the main road into the village, and George dropped me off.
    • Then I fitted the new door casings.
    • Opening her bag again, Nancy handed over another envelope.
    • After hanging up the overcoat, Rickmore said: `I'll just tell my wife what's happening.'
    • Michelle remembers the first time he held the new baby.
    • Each soldier was mounted and leading a horse.
    • If you pull a gun, I'll shoot you!
    • The prison director was murdered by a prisoner who had been released on leave for the day.
    • The assistant took the twenty-five guineas from him briskly, and asked whether they should send the suit when it was ready.
    • They should be able to take their kids out and walk down the street and not have to worry about getting shot or whatever.
    • His truck is seen by school children. From above, they throw a huge rock.
    The phrasal verb get away has the pattern V n P only.
    • He got me away within a week.
    add apply arrange (objects) attract (iron) bear (a weapon) bring carry catch change (a fuse) collect (a substance or energy) deal (cards) deliver draw (a gun) draw (a cart) draw (money) drive (a passenger) drive (a ball) drop fire (a bullet or arrow) fit fly (a flag) gather gather (information) get hang head (a ball) hide hold hold (a prisoner) launch (a rocket or ship) lay (carpets or foundations) lead lift lift (vegetables) move pick (fruit) 24 produce pull pull (a cart) pull (a gun) push raise reflect (light) release (a prisoner) (usu passive) release (a person or thing) release (a gas) remove replace restore (something stolen) (usu passive) return (something borrowed) ride (a horse) send serve (a ball) settle (a residue) shake spread strike (a match) take throw (an object) throw (a rider) turn (a wheel or key) turn (a page) upset (an object) walk (the dog) withdraw
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    add in (an ingredient) add on (usu passive) add on (an item) break off (a piece) bring along bring up (food) clear away (dishes) collect up (things) count out (money) cut off (a piece) cut out (a piece) deal out (cards) draw off (a liquid) draw up (a chair) drop off (a passenger) fish out gather up (things) get away (a person) give back give out hand back (something borrowed) hand out hand over hand round/around hang out (clothes) hang up hang up (the phone) hold back hold up (an object) keep back lay aside lay out (things) leave behind lift up pass around/round pass on pick up pull in (a criminal) pull up (a chair) put aside put away (something) put away (a criminal) put by (money) put out (things to be used) put up (a poster) roll up (your sleeves) send in (an application) send in (troops) send off (a letter) send on (a document) send out (letters) set out (things) shake off (a person's hand) shake out (a cloth) sit down (a person) sit up (a person) sort out (things) spread out (a cloth) take away (a thing) take away (a number) take away (a person) take down take on (goods or people) take out (a tooth) take out (a friend) throw away/out throw up (dust or stones) try on (clothes) turn around/round turn out (contents) turn over
    (ii) The `buy' group

    These verbs are concerned with changes in ownership or possession. This includes:

    • commercial transactions e.g. buy, sell, spend
    • voluntarily exchanging goods e.g. accept, offer, share
    • temporarily transferring possession e.g. check (luggage)
    • losing and keeping e.g. find, keep, lose
    • selecting one item from a range e.g. choose, draw
    • being able to buy something e.g. (can) afford, (cannot) run to
    • Tamsin accepted the bulky packet of letters, held together with a rubber band, and returned the postman's cheery greeting.
    • When I left the army I came back home and bought a house.
    • If you choose a real Christmas tree this year, the Christmas Tree Stand could help to keep it looking good for longer.
    • A child may want to do well only to earn praise.
    25 Everyone who is modern tells me to get a word processor as it would make my chore so much easier.
    • A man who overheard the conversation sprang from his seat in the crowd and said, `You can have my ticket, son.'
    • The thieves kept my credit card, which the bank immediately stopped.
    • I decided I would never own a TV.
    • Mr Patrick had signed nothing and put up no money.
    • Dillinger's has just reissued the Schubert songs as a three-volume set on 21 CDs. If you can't run to that, consider the recording of Wolf's complete Spanish Songbook.
    • The nation's most famous fish and chip shop, Harry Ramsden's in West Yorkshire, last year sold 264,000lb of haddock.
    • They began their marriage in a communal flat which demanded a lot of adjustment on the part of Karen, an only child who had never had to share her belongings.
    accept (something offered) adopt (a child) adopt (a country) (can) afford (something for sale)* blow (money) buy catch change (money) check (luggage) choose claim (money) collect deal (drugs) discover (something lost or unknown) draw (a lottery number) earn (money or praise) find (something lost) gain get (something you need)* get (a present)* get (a newspaper)* have* hold (shares) keep (a possession) let (your house) lose lose (money) offer order (some food) own pick present (a gift) provide push (drugs) receive receive (stolen goods) recover refuse (something offered) save score (drugs) sell serve (food) serve (a summons) share (something you have) spend (money) steal (things or ideas) take take (something offered) take (something (from a range)) take (a house)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    buy up (land) carry off (a prize) check in (luggage) divide up (a whole) fix up (a person) get back (something lost or stolen) give away give out (information) give up (a job) give up (something deserved) hand down (knowledge or a possession) hand in (homework or something found) hand on lay in (supplies) lay on (food) lay out (money) let out (your house) pass on (costs) pay back (money) pay out (money) pick out put down (money) put on (money) put up (money) sell off sell on sell up (possessions) serve up (food) set aside (something useful) share out sign away sign over take back (something bought) throw in (something extra) trade in (a car) turn in (homework) turn in (something borrowed) turn over win back (something lost)
    26
    V P n and V P P n
    buy into (a company) come by* come into (money)* come up with (a sum of money)* hold on to* (cannot) run to (something for sale)* settle on
    (iii) The `operate' group

    These verbs are concerned with operating machinery or vehicles.

    • Edna O'Brien can't swim, can't drive a car, can't work an answering machine.
    • Charles came and operated the security lock.
    • The second time we played the record, it sounded twice as fast.
    • Well, you can't ride your bicycle today, and that's final.
    • Eileen smiled, and started up the engine without speaking.
    apply (brakes) back (a car) blow (a horn) control (equipment) drive (a car) drive (a machine) fire (a gun) fly (an aircraft) handle (a weapon or vehicle) operate (a machine) play (an instrument) play (a record) ride (a bicycle) ring (a bell) run (a tape) run (a machine) set (a clock) sound (a horn) start (an engine) stop (a machine) work (a machine)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    back up (a car) let off (a gun) play back (a tape) put on (a record) put out (a light) set off (a bomb) start up (an engine) turn out (a light)
    II.3 The `cover', `follow', and `record' groups

    These verbs are concerned with a concrete action or event which does not change or affect the person or thing indicated by the Object, but where the Object is involved in the action or event. They can be divided into five groups:

    (i) The `cover' group
    (ii) The `meet' group
    (iii) The `follow' group
    (iv) The `record' group
    (v) The `use' group

    (i) The `cover' group

    These verbs are concerned with moving something so that it is on, under, or around the Object, or so that it is no longer in that position. The person or thing indicated by the Object is not moved or changed, although it is covered, revealed, or supported. We also include here cover 2,3, hide, support, and surround, where the Subject indicates the thing that is over, under, or around the Object.

    • The light became so bright she automatically covered her eyes.
    • I had driven Jowan to the hospital, where they had examined and dressed his wound.
    • She was dressed in a black cape that she removed to reveal a red petticoat.
    The verbs cover 2,3, hide, and support have inanimate Subjects.
    • Thick smoke covered the prison.
    • The beams that supported the roof had jagged ends.
    27 cover dress (a wound) dress (a salad) fill (a container) hide reveal (something hidden) ring (a bird) show (something hidden) support surround treat (a surface)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    cover up fill up (a container) stop up (a hole)
    (ii) The `meet' group

    These verbs are concerned with meeting or getting to know someone, or visiting someone or a place. We include here lay, go with, and sleep with, which mean `have sex with', and avoid, which is concerned with deliberately not meeting someone.

    • I'll see you tomorrow for that coffee you promised. Call for me at four.
    • I was to meet Dad as the car pulled up and not let him enter the house in the usual manner through the backdoor.
    • When she said, `Are you seeing somebody else?' he said, `I'm sorry,' and burst into tears.
    • I did all the things you do when you visit relatives - ate their food, used their bathtub, washing machine and telephone.
    avoid catch lay meet pull see (a friend) see (a boyfriend)* visit
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    look up (a friend)
    V P n and V P P n
    call for (a friend) come upon* go with* run across run into* sleep with*
    (iii) The `follow' group

    These verbs are concerned with going in a particular direction or to or from a particular place. The Object indicates a direction, a place, a road, or a person who is in a particular place.

    • Cross the road and walk on the other side.
    • If he's the killer, he'll have to go out, and then we can follow him and call the police.
    • They made their way back up before going on upstream, following the upper path.
    • He went back to Yorkshire to join his loyal, long-suffering wife.
    • It was not enough for tired drivers to switch on the radio and open the window. They should pull off the road and sleep.
    • Ginette stuck to me like a leech and accompanied Red and me on all our outings.
    • Daniels had never even visited Canada.
    approach (a place) cross (a road)* enter (a room) follow (a friend) follow (a suspect) follow (a path) join (your family) join (a queue)* leave (a place)* negotiate (an area of land) take (a route) visit (a place)
    28
    V P n
    drop by (a place)* fall behind (a person)* gain on (a person)* get off (a piece of land)* keep to (a path)* pull into (a place)* pull off (a road)* stick to (a person or thing)* stick with (a person)* stop by (a place)* turn off (a road)*
    (iv) The `record' group

    These verbs are concerned with recording, measuring, indicating, or copying something or someone.

    • As Zara guides us on a tour of the house, she stops to point out a large portrait on the dining room wall.
    • Dozens of local reporters were waiting to record his every word.
    • I mentioned my admiration for General Gordon and they sent him up and made jokes about his death - they've no decency at all.
    cover (a song) draw indicate indicate (a measurement) mark (a student's work) mark (a place or position) paint realize (a design) record (speech or music) record (a measurement) test
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    act out blow up (a photograph) point out (a landmark) send up (a person) take off (a person)

    The verbs copy, film, and measure, which are not among the 400 most frequent verbs in English, also belong in this group.

    (v) The `use' group

    These verbs are concerned with using something.

    • To understand the whole chain of events leading to the Aurora, scientists have to employ a wide range of methods, from space satellites to ground stations.
    • Transfer the cookies to cooling racks, using a wide spatula.
    employ (materials or methods) try (something new) use (a knife)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    try out (something new)
    II.4 The `build' group

    These verbs are concerned with a concrete action or event which creates something or brings it into being.

    • If Mother and Grandma can build a house, so can I.
    • I have completed my greatest work of art.
    • The cliffs are made of volcanic rocks and were formed when the sea level was higher.
    • She was likely to be home in good time to get the lunch.
    • He had offered her his scarf, wrapping it round so that just a space was left for breathing and talking.
    29 The play wasn't performed until 1965.
    • He has selected thirty posters as examples of his best work and run off 500 copies of each, every one numbered and hand signed.
    • The explosions were thought to have been caused by a gas leak, which started a fire and blew up one of the refinery's gas separation units.
    • These small breweries turn out some really traditional beer.
    bear (a child) blow (bubbles) be born build (a building) complete (a book) cook (a meal) create deliver (a baby) design (a garment or building) fix (a meal) form (a natural feature) (usu passive) get (a meal)* grow (a plant) grow (a beard) grow (a crystal) have (a baby)* lay (a trap) lay (an egg) leave (a mark) leave (a space) make make (a television programme) make (a meal) mix (cement) mix (a piece of music) perform (a play) place (an order) prepare prepare (a meal) produce roll (a cigarette) rule (a line) set (a trap) shoot (a film) start (a fire) strike (a coin) (usu passive)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    beat out (sounds) cook up (a meal) give off/out (gas or heat) make up (food) mark out (an area or shape) put up (a building) roll up (a cigarette) run off (a copy) send out (a signal or light) send out (roots) set up (a structure) throw off (a substance) throw up (a building) turn out (products)
    II.5 The `change', `concern', and `arrange' groups

    These verbs are concerned with an abstract action or event which changes or affects the person or thing indicated by the Object. They can be divided into nine groups:

    (i) The `change' group
    (ii) The `end' group
    (iii) The `beat an illness' group
    (iv) The `concern' group
    (v) The `help' group
    (vi) The `control' group
    (vii) The `beat' group
    (viii) The `call out' group
    (ix) The `arrange' group

    (i) The `change' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing something abstract that makes the Object different.

    • They were going to use some kind of mind-altering drugs to break him.
    • When he lost confidence after Christmas I tried to build him up and give him my support.
    • This method of electing the president was changed by the referendum of October 1962.
    • The bank lost so much that it had to close the operation.
    • Killing people from the air may make some people feel better but it will not improve the lives of anyone in Bosnia.
    • We were instructed that the depth of the Penguin Pool was to be reduced to keep down the costs of regularly changing the water.
    • Parents often invest large sums of money in their children's education in an attempt to raise their intellectual capacity.
    • We also found out how she had been able to turn the business around so dramatically.
    30 affect arrange (a piece of music) (usu passive) bind break (a person) change clear (your mind)* close (a shop) control (prices or feelings) cut (costs) cut (a text) destroy (a person) develop (land) develop (a skill or relationship) divide (people) drop (a level) extend (a meeting) feed (an emotion) increase (a price) improve lift (an amount) limit open (a shop) raise (a rate or standard) reduce score (a piece of music) train (a person or animal) train (a talent) train (an athlete) turn (a game) upset (a situation)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    break down (an idea) break in (a recruit) build up (a thing) build up (a person) close down (a factory) cut back (expenditure) cut down (costs) cut down (an activity) cut out (part of a text) divide off (an area) divide up (an area or institution) drive out feed up (a person) fill up (a person) keep down (costs) keep up (costs) pick out (usu passive) put up (the price) roll back run down (an industry or amount) shake up (an organization) step up train up (a person) turn around/round (a business) turn around/round (a sentence)
    (ii) The `end' group

    These verbs are concerned with bringing a situation to an end. With some verbs, such as end, the Object is the situation itself. With other verbs, such as open up (a border), the verb and the Object together indicate a situation that is brought to an end.

    • East Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia were beginning to break their links with any form of communist orthodoxy.
    • The police pumped tear gas into the building in an effort to end the siege.
    • The 86-year-old elder statesman has been struggling to ensure that the more conservative figures in the leadership do not completely kill off his reform programme in the next five-year plan.
    • Still far from resolved are key issues such as how to reduce military confrontation, open up the border and, ultimately, how to end forty five years of division.
    • The justices struck down the law by a vote of eight to nothing.
    break (links) close complete (a degree) cut (a supply) end (a situation) kill (a project) open (a border) settle (plans) (usu passive)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    break off (a relationship) break up (a marriage) break up (a meeting) bring down (a government) cut off (a supply) grow out (a hairstyle) kill off (a project) open up (a border) pay off (a debt) strike down (a law) work off (a feeling) work off (a debt) write off (a debt) write off (a project)
    V P n
    back off (a claim)*
    31
    (iii) The `beat an illness' group

    These verbs are concerned with improving a bad situation, solving a problem, or surviving an unpleasant situation.

    • Since a lack of confidence was still an issue for him, Sean attacked this problem daily.
    • Thousands of women are beating breast cancer and I plan to be one of them.
    • The strikes did play an important role in fighting the social injustice caused by the totalitarian system.
    • She admitted to herself she didn't know how to handle the problem and was tired of trying.
    • It is obvious that socialism meets a fundamental need of modern man, or its attraction would not be so widely felt.
    • His art enabled him to rise above the horror of life in the trenches in the First World War.
    • If you could get the electricity turned on tomorrow somehow, would that save the situation?
    • I don't care what you do. It's your problem, work it out somewhere else.
    address (a problem) answer (a need) attack (a problem) beat (a problem) break (a difficult situation) break (a habit) break (a code) control (pollution) fight (something unpleasant) fill (a need) fix (a problem) handle (a situation) improve (a situation) meet (a need or a challenge) remove (an obstacle) save (a bad situation) settle (an argument or problem) sort (a problem) (usu passive) survive (a dangerous or difficult situation) treat (an illness)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    break down (barriers) clear up (a problem) clear up (an illness) fight off (an illness) head off (an unpleasant situation) hold off (a challenge) live down (a mistake)* make up (a quarrel) put down (a riot) ride out (a crisis) shake off (an illness) sort out (a problem) sort out (a person) throw off (a bad situation) work out (a problem)
    V P n and V P P n
    get around/round (a problem or rule) get over (an experience or problem) rise above (a problem)* stand up to (something unpleasant)

    The verb solve, which is not among the 400 most frequent verbs in English, also belongs in this group.

    (iv) The `concern' group

    These verbs are concerned with someone being affected, usually negatively, by something. The Subject is usually inanimate and the Object is usually a person or a group of people.

    • His eyes had begun to glaze over, the effects of the heavy drinking were catching up with him.
    • I don't want to talk about something that doesn't concern me.
    • The report said rising oil prices were likely to hit many developing nations hard, complicating the task faced by countries with debts or low incomes.
    • Nationalism can threaten democracies.
    The phrasal verbs be playing up and put out have the pattern V n P only. Kershaw was at that moment bent over the potato-peeling machine, which had been playing him up since he had been introduced to it that morning. The phrasal verbs let down and put out have animate as well as inanimate Subjects. 32 Suddenly he became a betraying, hopeless man, just like all the others who had let Sylvia down.
    affect burn (usu passive) concern* dominate (a person or country) fail hit hurt (not) move (usu passive) rule (your life) strike surprise threaten
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    lay up let down be playing up* put out
    V P n and V P P n
    catch up with* do for (usu passive)
    (v) The `help' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing something abstract to benefit someone or something.

    • The US effort to boost economic activity will in itself help business confidence in an otherwise subdued economic outlook.
    The phrasal verb pull through has the pattern V n P only.
    • We all hoped that since he'd managed to survive so far, proper treatment would pull him through.
    help serve (your country)
    V n P
    pull through
    (vi) The `control' group

    These verbs are concerned with having a particular role in an organization or among a group of people. This role is usually controlling or leading.

    • The telephone workers' union is controlled by the President's own supporters.
    • They now own and operate a 300-acre working farm 50 miles south of Rochester.
    • Since then the country has mostly been ruled by tyrants, even by tyrant dynasties.
    • He bought one of the most prized buildings in Hong Kong's Central district, in 1980, and in the following year he took over Laker Airways.
    control (an organization) head (an organization) hold (An army...a place) introduce (a TV programme) keep (a business)* lead (an organization) lead (a conversation) manage (an organization) occupy (a country) operate (a business) present (a TV programme) present (a play) rule (a country) run (a business)
    33
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    take over (a company or country)
    (vii) The `beat' group

    These verbs are concerned with competition. The Subject indicates one competitor, the Object indicates another.

    • I want to run against the best athletes in the world and I think I can beat them.
    • Becker opens his Olympic campaign today against Norway's Christian Ruud and is then expected to play Britain's Chris Wilkinson.
    • This is the second time that Ruby Tiger has seen off her juniors in this race.
    beat meet* play*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    beat out face down* put out see off
    (viii) The `call out' group

    These verbs are concerned with making someone go somewhere or behave in a certain way. The Object indicates the person or people affected.

    • Family doctors are fed up with being called out on home visits late at night.
    • The spokesman refused to be drawn. `We do not comment on the reasons for people either joining or leaving the company,' he said.
    • I told them that twenty-three was a bit higher than we wanted to pay. Before I could attempt to talk them down, the president said, `Perhaps it is, but that's the price.'
    The verb bind has an inanimate Subject.
    • The rules that bind societies are the identical rules that bind individual humans.
    attract (people or animals) bind (Laws...people) call (a doctor) call (a witness) (usu passive) draw (a lot of people) (not) draw (a person) (usu passive) force push use work
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    beat down (a seller) buy off call out (a doctor) draw out head off (a person or vehicle) hold back move along move on order around/about pick up pull back (troops) pull in (crowds) pull out (troops) pull over (a driver) pull up push around set off start off (a person or activity) talk down (a pilot) talk down (a seller) talk up (a buyer) throw out turn back turn out
    (ix) The `arrange' group

    These verbs are concerned with making different not the Object itself but the circumstances surrounding the Object. This includes:

    • arranging for someone to take up a job or a position, or to leave a job or a position e.g. admit, elect, fire
    • 34
    • providing a home, money, or education for something or someone e.g. house, keep
    • making arrangements about something such as the time of an event e.g. fix (a date), move (an event)
    • She was one of the first girls at the school to be accepted by Oxford University.
    • His bankers had arranged a breakfast meeting.
    • The assembly meeting will also elect a new president.
    • She still wouldn't fix a date for the wedding.
    • A homeless mother of two has spent two years living in squalor while waiting to be housed by the city council.
    • What kept him? I've been waiting for hours.
    • In spite of your mother's rejection there was always someone to look out for you.
    • It is easy to forget that both parents have an equal obligation to provide for their children.
    • I never actually put a meeting off because I had to go to the toilet.
    • Dr Wilkinson wants to talk to you. I'll put you through.
    • They're your babies and you'll find a way to raise them.
    • Aymes is now fit and has the right temperament, but it would be a gamble to recall him.
    • Now I was beginning to feel impatient with his loyalty and wanted to shake him off.
    • He had been slightly disappointed when the Red Sox turned out to be the only team that wanted to sign him.
    • She died of influenza a year later and I was taken in by her only relative.
    The phrasal verbs set back and set up 7 have an inanimate Subject.
    • Although the tunnel could be finished by the end of the century, the problems of attracting private sector cash are likely to set it back further.
    The phrasal verb set up 7 has the pattern V n P only.
    • A win on Saturday would set us up nicely.
    accept (a person) accept (a transplanted organ)* accept (coins) admit (a patient) (usu passive) admit (a person) appoint arrange (a meeting) arrest (a suspect) ban (a person) buy (a person) (usu passive) commit (resources) commit (a patient) (usu passive) confirm (a church member) (usu passive) drop (a team member) (usu passive) elect employ enter (a competitor) fire (an employee) fix (a date) fix (an arrangement) fix (a person) hold (something delayed) house (a person) keep (a person) keep (an animal) keep (a delayed person)* leave (your partner) maintain (a person) mark (a player) marry mind (a child) move (a person) move (an event) place (an employee) promote (usu passive) publish (an article) raise (a child) raise (a type of animal or crops) recall (a person or product) recall (a team member) receive (a visitor) refer (a patient) (usu passive) refuse (a person) reject (a person) release (a person under an obligation) remove (an official) (usu passive) run (a horse) sign (a person) stop (a vehicle) support (a person) tend (something delicate)
    35
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    bind over (a criminal) bring forward (a meeting) bring in (an outsider) bring up (a child) buy out (an owner) buy out (a soldier) call off (an event) call up (a recruit) catch up (a person) (usu passive) check in (a hotel guest) check out (a hotel guest) close off (an area) cut off (a person or place) cut off (a caller) cut up ( a driver) cut out (a person) draw in (a person) fit in (a person or task) fit out/up fix up give away (the bride) give up (a criminal) hand over (a prisoner) hold down (a person) hold over (a meeting) hold up (a person or process) keep down (a group of people) keep on (an employee) lay off (workers) leave out let off (a criminal) mark up (a product) mark down (a product) mark down (a student) marry off miss out open up (a place or economy) pass over (a person) pay back (an enemy) pay off (a debtor) pull up (a person) put back (a meeting) put off (a meeting) put through (a telephone caller) put up (a guest) put up (a candidate) send down (a student) (usu passive) send down (a prisoner) (usu passive) send off (a player) set back (a project) set up (a person) set up (a victim) shake off (a person following) show around/round sign up stand up (a boyfriend) strike off (a doctor or lawyer) (usu passive) strike out (a batter) take back (a boyfriend) take in (a visitor) take in (a suspect) take off (a service) take on (an employee) throw off (people following) throw up (a person or thing) turn away (a person) turn in (a suspect) vote in (a party) vote out (a party)
    V P n and V P P n
    come for* look after look out for pick on provide for see about (something to happen)* sit on (something to be dealt with)* stand by* stick by* walk over (a person)
    II.6 The `watch', `break a record', and `approve' groups

    These verbs are concerned with an abstract action or event which does not change or affect the person or thing indicated by the Object. They can be divided into seven groups:

    (i) The `watch' group
    (ii) The `break a record' group
    (iii) The `win' group
    (iv) The `approve' group
    (v) The `answer' group
    (vi) The `count against' group
    (vii) Verbs with other meanings

    (i) The `watch' group

    These verbs are concerned with directed mental activity.

    • Open University students have to be dedicated enough to get up early to catch the Open University programmes on radio and TV.
    36 What surprised me was that nobody checked my papers.
    • They check the company out fully, they talk to the competition, they talk to academics.
    • He took her home for dinner and went over her manuscript line by line.
    • Lucy Jennings is reading catering management and sociology at Oxford Brooks.
    • Read for a while or watch a television program that doesn't require much intellect.
    catch (a TV programme) check (a document) examine (a person or thing) follow (a sport) follow (a musical score) hear (a lecture) investigate (an event or situation) read (a book, words or music) read (a measuring device) read (a subject) review (troops) seek study (a subject) study test (a person with a disease) (usu passive) watch watch (a TV programme)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    check out look over look up (information) pick over seek out
    V P n
    go over (a document or problem) look round/around* watch over
    (ii) The `break a record' group

    These verbs focus on the fact that the Subject achieves success. We include here buy (time), make 3.7, and sell (a product), which indicate that the Subject contributes to the success of something else.

    • Since he turned 18 he has won the European Cup, the World Cup, and the Commonwealth Games. He has also broken the world record three times.
    • The company is having trouble filling the vacancy for a new chairman.
    • It is not Ms Jones's colourful career that will sell the book, but the face that stares out from the front cover.
    • Lisa successfully argued that the students were doing field work in sociological studies, an assertion that won credit for the teachers and recognition for her program.
    achieve (success) beat (a record) beat (a time limit) break (a record) buy (time)* claim (a record) fill (a role or vacancy) fill (a theatre) find (something needed) hit (a high point) make (something) make (the team)* pass (a test) reach (a stage)* reach (a person (by phone)) sell (product) stand (a test)* strike (oil) win (something you need)
    V P n
    get through (an examination)* get through (parliament)*
    (iii) The `win' group

    These verbs are concerned with winning, losing, or taking part in a competition. The Object indicates the competition or the thing that is won or lost.

    37 If Republicans don't do well in rural Illinois, I don't think they have much of a chance of carrying this state.
    • Wednesday night marks the recording industry's Grammy Awards; and if the predictions hold up, Eric Clapton is sure to walk off with a bevy of awards.
    • He only won fourteen of the eighty races.
    carry (a political district) defend (a title) draw (a match) drop (a game) enter (a competition) lose (a contest) take (a political district) throw (a competition) win (a contest or medal)
    V P P n
    run away with (a competition or prize) walk away with (a competition or prize) walk off with (a competition or prize)
    (iv) The `approve' group

    These verbs are concerned with the practical demonstration of approval or disapproval.

    • Despite some mutinous mutterings, they are likely to approve the deal eventually.
    • The Berlin Wall was breached a year ago this Friday and in Berlin a series of events is being held this week to mark that anniversary.
    • Who knows if I'll still be running in 1998. I am not saying I will but I won't rule it out either.
    accept (a plan) accept (a document) adopt (a plan) allow (an activity) allow (a gift) (usu passive) approve (a plan or product) back (a person or what they do) back (a horse) ban (a film) clear (a document) (usu passive) clear (an accused person) confirm (a position) discover (a performer) (usu passive) follow (a religion)* fund (an organization) mark (an event) pass (something (as correct)) promote (something) push (an idea) support (an idea or person) support (a team)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    back up (a person) bear out (a person) build up (a person or thing) rule out (a course of action) show off (a possession or attribute) throw out (a legal case) vote down (a proposal)
    V P n
    drink to (a person or thing)*
    (v) The `answer' group

    These verbs are concerned with responding or reacting to something.

    • For a while, she was unable to look at him, and she answered his attempts at conversation softly and distractedly.
    • Until recently this research formed rather a backwater, and few astronomers wanted to follow up the discoveries.
    • Men are slightly more likely than women to start swooning over someone who does not return their feelings.
    38 answer (the telephone) answer return (a call) return (feelings)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    follow up (a suggestion or discovery)
    V P n
    fall for (a trick)
    (vi) The `count against' group

    These verbs are concerned with making people think of someone or something in a particular way. The Object indicates the person or thing that is thought of.

    All of these verbs, except blow up, dress up, and show up, have inanimate Subjects.

    • Only you would think of that colour. It becomes you.
    • If you live in rented accommodation and have moved around a lot, this will count against you.
    • As far as the locals are concerned, you are a foreigner. Even the way you walk will give you away.
    • La Noblesse restaurant has much to recommend it.
    • He'd call me things, humiliate me and try to show me up.
    become (a person)* recommend (a person)*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    blow up (an incident) dress up (a situation) give away (a person) set off (a colour) show off (a feature) show up (a person)
    V P n
    count against (a person)* tell against (a person)*
    (vii) Verbs with other meanings

    These verbs are concerned with a wide range of other abstract actions. The Object is the focus or target of the action, but it is not directly affected by the action.

    • Do you believe that Adam fixed that race, maybe even murdered the trainer?
    • At least 300 people were evacuated from a variety store this afternoon when a gunman held up a nearby bank and took two hostages.
    • In certain parts of the world some people are known to live to well over 100 years old but they mainly live off the land, in mountainous areas where the air is cleaner.
    • The typical employee spends as much as seven hours a week in these meetings and often works late into the night to make up the time.
    • Your child is probably using his friend as a vehicle for releasing any strong feelings that are troubling him.
    • The next day Roberto packed his bags. Ingrid went with him to the railway station to see him off. He was finally leaving for India.
    39 She checked into a hotel in Victoria two days ago, then promptly settled the bill and moved without explanation in the middle of the night.
    • It's a good idea to spend the first night of your holiday sleeping off the jet lag in a hotel.
    • Tell me, honey, and maybe I can help. I'd like to help, just try me.
    The Subject of replace 1 is one of the people or things involved in the exchange, whereas the Subject of replace 2,3 is a person who arranges the exchange.
    • Will corn starch replace plastic foam?
    • I wonder if we can ever replace such a tremendous array of talent.
    apply (a rule) attend (a meeting or school) break (a rule) carry (a motion) (usu passive) claim (money) clear (a cheque) cost (a proposal) (usu passive) declare (goods) enter (an organization) examine (a student) (usu passive) experience (a situation) face (a person or group) fill (a prescription) fix (a race or prices) follow (advice) follow (what someone else has done)* follow (a person's profession) handle (an area of work) impose (a rule) introduce (something new) join (an organization) launch (a new product) leave (an organization) manage (time or money) match (two things) meet (a situation)* name (a person) offer (friendship) offer (a service) pay (a bill) promote (a product) realize (fears) (usu passive) release (feelings) release (documents) release (a new record) replace represent (a group of people) represent (a town or country) be represented restore (a condition) save (money) serve (an area) settle (a bill) show (a work of art) spread (wealth) test (a student) test (a person) try (a shop or person)* try (a suspected criminal) use (a name)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    catch out (a person) check off(things on a list) cost out (a proposal) cover up (the truth) hold up (a bank) lay out (an area) make up (time or hours) save up (money) see off (a traveller) sit out (an activity)* sleep off (ill effects)
    V P n and V P P n
    come on to (a person)* draw on (skills or experience) go against (wishes or expectations) go on (information)* live off (a person)* live on/off (something)* play on (a person's fears) run through (a performance) trade off (something) trade on (something)
    II.7 The `form' group

    These verbs are concerned with an abstract action or event which creates something or brings something into being. The Object indicates the thing that is created.

    • A Japanese garden next to the drive adds a touch of the exotic.
    • Attacks of asthma can also be brought on by emotional distress, reactions to some drugs such as aspirin, and physical exertion.
    • High-impact aerobics, such as jogging, is now known to cause more problems than it solves.
    40 They were not allowed to join any of the smart Los Angeles country clubs, so they decided to form a club of their own.
    • Make a firm rule about weighing yourself; be consistent.
    • You could take the view that excessive anxiety is a purely physical illness. You could certainly make out a case for this point of view.
    • Ersted showed that an electric current could produce a magnetic effect.
    • He will raise huge amounts of money.
    • They are expected to ring up big profits for the third quarter.
    • He had started up his own business, was working all hours and had lots of other pressures.
    • Then, when I have worked up an appetite, I sit down with the family and tuck in to a huge bowl of cornmeal porridge, which I love.
    add (a quality) build (an organization) build (someone's confidence) call (a meeting) cause (something bad) complete (a group) create cut (a record) design (a system) develop (a business) develop (a new product) develop (an idea or story) establish (an organization) establish (a reputation) finish (something made) form (an organization) form (a relationship) form (someone's character) found (an institution) found (a city) (usu passive) get (a particular result) make (rules) open (a bank account) open (opportunities) order (an investigation) pass (a law) place (an advertisement) produce (an effect) produce (an argument) produce (a film) publish (a book) pull (crowds) raise (money) raise (an emotion) reach (an agreement) restore (a situation) set (a trap) show (an attitude or feeling) show (a quality) start (a business) strike (a deal) strike (a pose)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    bring about (an event) bring back (a memory) bring back (a fashion) bring in (a law) bring in (money) bring in (a verdict) bring on (an illness or problem) bring out (a new product) bring out (a kind of behaviour) build up (confidence) build up (pressure or speed) draw up (a document) finish off (something made) fix up (an event) lay down (rules) make out (a case) make up (an amount) mark off (a part of something) open up (opportunities) push through (a law) put on (a show or service) ring up (a sale) ring up (an amount of money) run up (a debt) set down (rules) set up (a procedure) start up (a business) throw down (a challenge) work up (enthusiasm) work up (an appetite) work up (a piece of writing)
    II.8 The `start' and `stop' group

    These verbs and Objects together indicate that an activity is started, finished, or carried out in a particular way. This includes:

    • starting an activity e.g. join, start
    • finishing or leaving an activity e.g. abandon, finish
    • continuing an activity e.g. continue, repeat
    • not doing or preventing an activity e.g. avoid, escape, prevent
    • doing something persistently or with difficulty e.g. attempt, manage, press
    • At first Mark tried to watch surreptitiously for any vehicle that might be tailing them. But on the main highway it was impossible to be certain, and he abandoned the attempt.
    • Tony and Richard were facing each other, as if they had just stood up to continue their stroll and had paused to exchange a last remark.
    • She beseeched him to cut his drinking, his smoking, to sleep more.
    • White could still manage a smile when he came into his after-match press conference.
    • Diplomatic efforts to prevent a civil war have so far been unsuccessful.
    41 The military and the civilian administration would start the arduous task of bringing these people to book.
    • It is questionnable whether the agreement will stop the killing.
    The phrasal verbs carry on, finish up, leave off and strike up have the pattern V P n (not pron) only.
    • From this research it is difficult to draw general conclusions because some of the patients left off treatment for reasons that were not connected with the treatment itself.
    • They all meet at the supermarket where, under the guise of checking the sell-by dates on the strawberry yoghurts, they strike up light conversation.
    abandon (a process) (cannot) afford (a situation)* arrest (a process) attempt (a task) avoid (an event or activity) begin (talks) check (a process) contain (a process) continue (something)* cut (classes)* cut (bad behaviour)* drop (an activity) escape (injury)* finish (an activity) join (an activity) launch (an activity) lift (a rule) maintain (a process) manage (an improvement)* manage (a response)* open (a meeting) press (a claim) prevent (an event) repeat (an action) run (an experiment) start (the work) start (the day)* stop (an activity)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    break off (an activity) bring off (something difficult) carry off (something difficult) carry on (an activity) carry out (a threat or instruction) carry through (a difficult task) cut out (a behaviour)* do over (a task) finish up (an activity) follow through (an action) give up (an activity)* keep up (an activity)* lead off (an activity)* leave off (an activity)* move along (a process) play out (an event) (usu passive) pull off (a difficult task) put off (an activity) put on (behaviour)* start over (an activity)* strike up (a conversation or friendship) strike up (a piece of music) take up (an activity job or task) throw aside (a way of life) turn on (behaviour)*
    V P n and V P P n
    build up to (an activity)* come off (medication)* fall back on (an activity)* get in on (an activity)* get through (a task) get up to (an activity)* give over (an activity) (imperative) go about (normal activities)* go at (an activity)* go in for (an activity)* go through (an activity) go through with (an action)* play at (an activity) stick at (an activity)* stick to (an activity)*
    II.9 The `do' and `take', `turn a corner', and `open your eyes' groups

    These verbs are concerned with both concrete and abstract actions and events. The verbs and the Objects do not indicate separate entities; the verb and the Object together express the action or event. They can be divided into three groups:

    (i) The `do' and `take' group
    (ii) The `turn a corner' group
    (iii) The `open your eyes' group

    (i) The `do' and `take' group

    These verbs and Objects are not separable and it is not possible to replace the Objects by pronouns. For example, it does not make sense to say `they wanted a verdict so we 42 returned it', or `he offered me a sip and I took it'. This means that the clause does not focus attention on what is done to the Object but on what the Subject does, or on something that happens to the Subject. The verb and the Object together describe an action by the Subject.

    Many of these verbs, especially do, get, give, have, and take, have little meaning in themselves but take their meaning from the Object.

    • He was sick with a muscular disease that would claim his life.
    • In psychotherapy, as in life, it is not unusual to come up against what seems to be a brick wall.
    • Have you done your homework, Gemma?
    • He also warned Whitlock not to talk to any of the residents, as his accent would only draw an angry reaction.
    • The regiment fought this battle in the coveted position on the right of the line.
    • When do I get the time to go to Rio, Mike?
    • Cosmo gave a sympathetic grin in the direction of Dick Dempsey.
    • Tanya had a hot bath, hoping it would relax her.
    • Last month he held a big party to mark his 60th birthday.
    • She continued to live the life of an invalid until the end.
    • Last month David Rusev lost his grandmother. She died at the age of 81.
    • `I need to make a phone call,' he said. `It won't take long.'
    • Ben was trying to impress his girlfriend by performing somersaults.
    • He did not run a perfect race last night but it was good enough.
    • The war continues to run up against the obstacles typical of an air war.
    • I took the Tube from Heathrow to save time.
    • The partners expect the company to show its first profit next year.
    • Could you take a screen test?
    • They're committed to making a good life for their four children, who turn cartwheels in the grass as we talk.
    • Hilda was regarded as one of Hollywoood's most powerful women, but she wore out her welcome in town and became despised.
    • She has to work out her notice, then she'll be joining me.
    The phrasal verbs hold out, open up, put up, and set up have the pattern V P n (not pron) only.
    • Troops of the peace-keeping force took control of the airport on Friday, but the rebel forces put up stiff resistance.
    The verb do 2.9 is used in questions beginning with what.
    • What does your father do?
    accept (responsibility)* adopt (a position) aim (a kick) assume (responsibility) attract (support)* bear (responsibility) bear (interest)* carry (a child) catch (a train)* change (your clothes)* change (buses)* change (gears)* charge (interest) claim (responsibility) claim (someone's life) collect (your thoughts)* commit (a crime) commit (suicide)* cost (jobs)* deliver (a blow) die (a death)* do (your teeth) do (harm) do do (an activity) do (a service or product) do (a subject at school) do (an accent)* draw (a deep breath) draw (blood) draw (a reaction)* be expecting (a baby) face (a problem) fight (a battle) fill (a role) find (time)* follow (a course) force (a smile)* get (the time or chance)* get (a train)* get (a TV channel) give (a smile)* give (a service) give (a party) have (a bath)* have (a lot of room)* 43 have (some help)* (can) hold (drink)* hold (the road)* hold (office) hold (a party) hold (the line) jump (a queue)* keep (a watch) kill (time)* lay (a basis or plans) lead (a life)* leave (a wife) live (a life)* lose (blood) lose (a part of the body)* lose (your life) lose (a relative)* lose (time) lose (an opportunity) make (a phone call) make (money) make (a friend)* move (house)* move (jobs)* offer (a sacrifice) pass (urine)* pay (a visit or attention) perform (an action or function) pick (a fight)* place (a telephone call) play (a shot) play (a joke) play (a concert) pull (a muscle) pull (a stunt) receive (blame or injuries) return (a verdict) run (a race) save (time or money) score (a success) serve (a purpose) serve (your interests) set (the table) shoot (pool)* shoot (a goal) show (a profit or loss) strike (a balance) suffer (a problem) survive (a relative) take (a sip an attitude) take (damage) take (a prize) take (the blame)* take (patients) take (a telephone call) take (a newspaper) take (a car) take (a subject) take (a test) take (drugs) take (a letter)* take (a measurement) throw (a fit)* throw (a punch) throw (a party) turn (a cartwheel) turn (a profit) use (the toilet)* work (its magic)*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    deal out (a punishment) fire off (a shot) hand in (your notice) hand over (a responsibility) hold out (hope)* lay down (your weapons) leave behind (a situation) offer up (a sacrifice) open up (a lead) put up (resistance) set up (home)* take in (a museum)* take on (a job)* take out (a loan) take up (a cause) take up (a job) take up (an offer) take up (a position) wear out (a welcome)* work out (your notice)*
    V P n and V P P n
    come under (attack)* come up against (a problem)* come up for (consideration) go against (someone)* run into (problems)* run up against (problems)* sign off (the dole) sign on (the dole)
    (ii) The `turn a corner' group

    The verbs and Objects in this group are not competely separable. The Objects can be replaced by pronouns, but as with the verbs in the preceding group the clause does not focus attention on what is done to the Object but on what the Subject does. For example, it does not make sense to ask `What did the baby cut?' or `What did the baby do to the tooth?' but only `What did the baby do?' or `Did the baby cut a tooth?'

    • The system let her get away with cold-blooded murder.
    • You were smart enough to run, but then you gave away your advantage.
    • The court will start hearing the case next week but no date was fixed.
    • Select a location where you can be alone for 10 to 15 minutes at a time. That may mean disconnecting the telephone for a while or telling your secretary to hold calls.
    • Does your bank current account pay interest when in credit?
    • These transactions would help the company to realize the value of its assets.
    • It was hard enough trying to keep a home and run a car on a teacher's salary.
    • There has been been no progress in setting a date for a top-level meeting on the crisis.
    • I didn't get anybody to fill the job. I took it over myself.
    44 He watched her gray car pass under dull streetlamps until it turned a corner and disappeared.
    act (a role) bear (weight) bear (a cost) blow (a chance) break (a serve) claim (an inheritance) cross (a line) cut (a tooth) deliver (something promised) draw (a salary) earn (interest) fight (a court action) hear (a case) hold (calls) keep (a promise) meet (the cost) miss (a shot)* miss (a chance) miss (a train)* miss (a meeting)* move (a motion) pay (interest) play (tennis) play (a role) play (a tune) realize (potential) realize (an amount of money) resign (your post)* run (a car)* run (water) save (a goal) score (a goal or points) set (a date or goal) show (a film or programme) sit (an exam) turn (a corner)*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    cut out (the light) give away (an advantage) live out (a dream or fantasy) pass up (an opportunity) take over (a role) throw away (an opportunity)
    V P n and V P P n
    come under (an authority)* do without (something)* get away with (a crime)* go towards (something bought)* go without (something)*
    (iii) The `open your eyes' group

    These verbs are concerned with actions done with and to your own body.

    • And then we cross our fingers. We hope for the best.
    • She opened her eyes and smiled at me.
    • Kemp merely nodded but the child put out his hand and was satisfied to have it briefly shaken.
    blow (your nose)* cross (your fingers)* drop (your voice)* extend (your hand) focus (your eyes)* hide (your face)* lift (a part of your body)* lift (your eyes or head)* open (your eyes)* open (your arms)* pick (your teeth)* raise (your voice)* roll (your eyes)* set (your face or jaw)* shake (a part of your body)* spread (your arms or legs)* turn (a part of your body)* work (a part of your body)*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    hold out (your hand)* hold up (your hand)* lift up (a part of your body)* put out (your hand)* spread out (your arms or legs)* stick out (a part of your body)* turn round/around (a part of your body)*
    II.10 The `face', `take three days', and `see' groups

    These verbs and Objects together are concerned with place or time. They can be divided into three groups:

    (i) The `face' group
    (ii) The `take three days' group
    (iii) The `next week sees' group

    45
    (i) The `face' group

    The verb and the Object together indicate place or extent. This includes:

    • where something or someone is relative to something else e.g. meet, pass
    • the direction something or someone is pointing or facing e.g. face
    • how big or extensive something is e.g. fill
    • Gunnell's face was painfully contorted as she cleared the final hurdle.
    • The Canadian tour was scheduled to cover 16,000 miles in nine weeks.
    • A flicker of real alarm crossed his face.
    • Each atom was seen to have three proper motions of its own: spinning on its axis like a top, describing a small circle with its axis like a top, contracting and expanding like a heart.
    • He turned on the bed until he was facing her directly and spoke in a tight voice.
    • We didn't want players running the length of the field, stretching themselves unnecessarily.
    The verbs cross, divide, follow, join, meet, pass, and run 4 have an inanimate Subject.
    • There were a few small fir trees where the sand dunes met the cobble beach.
    • Beyond the pub, the road passes a farmyard and becomes a grass track.
    clear (an object) cover (a distance) cross (an area or line) cross (your face)* describe (a circle) divide (an area) face (a thing or direction)* fill (a space) fish (a river) fit* follow (a route) head (a procession) head (a list) join (a river)* jump (a fence) lead (a procession) meet (an area)* meet (a line) occupy (a building) occupy (a seat) (usu passive) occupy (an area) pass pass (an area)* reach (a place)* ring (something) (usu passive) run* settle (an area) surround (a person or thing) top travel (a distance) travel (the world)* walk (a distance or place)* work (an area or place)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    fill up (a space) pass by*
    V P n and V P P n
    cut across (a division)* lead off (a place)* lead on to (a place)*
    (ii) The `take three days' group

    The verb and the Object together indicate a point in time, the duration of something, or a sequence of events.

    • The men, who last month began their seventeenth year in prison, have always maintained their innocence.
    These verbs often have inanimate Subjects.
    • Today's talks follow the summit meeting of Community leaders at the weekend.
    • He predicted that the current parliament would not last the full term.
    • The journey took thirty-nine days.
    The phrasal verb serve out has the pattern V P n (not pron) only.
    • Barlow refused to be interviewed after making clear his intention to serve out the last year of his contract.
    46 approach (a future time)* begin end* enter (a situation or period of time)* fill follow (an event) last* (can) manage (an amount of time or money)* mark (a point or stage) occupy pass* serve (a sentence) stay* succeed (a person) succeed (an event) (usu passive) take* wait*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    fill in fill up last out* put in serve out*
    V P n and V P P n
    be coming up to (a time or state)*
    (iii) The `next week sees' group

    These verbs indicate that an action, state, or event occurs. The Subject indicates a time or place, the Object indicates an action, state, or event. We include here go into, where the Subject indicates the length of time required to achieve the Object.

    • Not only is cash in limited supply, but each day brings new efforts to separate people from their money.
    • The album has been a work in progress since 1987, although it's hard to see how six years went into its creation.
    • Next week sees the first (and long overdue) conference on sickle cell disease sufferers.
    bring see
    V P n
    go into
    II.11 The `top', `develop', and `include' groups

    These verbs and Objects together give information about the qualities, attributes, or role of the Subject. They can be divided into three groups:

    (i) The `top' group
    (ii) The `develop' group
    (iii) The `include' group

    (i) The `top' group

    These verbs and Objects indicate how good, big, or important something or someone is. We include here (cannot) beat, which indicates how good the Object is, and buy and cover, which indicate that an amount of money is enough to pay for something.

    • Nothing beats a refreshing shower to wake you up first thing in the morning, or to revitalise you before an evening out.
    • Under Lloyd George *5310,000 could buy a knighthood and ten times that secured a peerage.
    • Legal aid itself is money to cover all or part of the cost of having a solicitor to represent you in court, either in a civil or a criminal case.
    47 Brazil had left Argentina far behind in industrialization but it had failed to expand its internal market.
    • Stevie Wonder topped the UK chart with `I Just Called To Say I Love You' for six consecutive weeks.
    approach (a level or state)* beat* (cannot) beat buy (a quantity) cover dominate (a situation) dominate (an area) fill (the air) fit* hold (the lead) lead (the competition) match (something good) pass (a level or figure) reach (a point or level) take (a size in clothes)* top (a list) (cannot) touch (a person) touch (a point or level) turn (an age)*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    eat up (resources) leave behind
    V P n and V P P n
    fall behind* live up to (a reputation)* make up for* match up to* run to (an amount or size)*
    (ii) The `develop' group

    These verbs and Objects indicate what something or someone has, what they are like, or what they become. This includes:

    • getting an illness or characteristic e.g. adopt, catch (a disease), develop
    • having a quality e.g. bear (no resemblance), catch (the light), have
    • (red hair)
    • changing e.g. gain (weight), gather (speed)
    • After a few years of marriage I found that my husband bore no resemblance to the man I thought I loved.
    • You will soon realize when something is wrong because your youngster will either go off her food or develop a tummy or headache.
    • By the age of thirty he had taken on the manner and appearance of an eccentric academic.
    • Muriel was all sweetness and light. She took after her mother.
    adopt (an attitude) affect (an interest)* assume (a quality or manner) bear (a mark) bear (no resemblance)* bear (flowers) carry (a disease) carry (a child)* catch (a disease)* catch (the light)* develop (a habit)* develop (an illness) develop (a fault)* enjoy (a benefit) gain (an ability) gain (weight or speed) gather (strength or courage)* gather (speed)* get (a type of weather)* get (an illness)* have (something)* have (red hair)* have (an illness)* hold (a permit) hold (its value)* lose (a quality or ability)* lose (heat) lose (weight)* occupy (a place in a system) present (a difficulty) present (an appearance) recover (consciousness)* run (a temperature)* sell (goods) wear
    48
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    gather up (strength or courage)* hold down (a job)* pick up (an illness) put on (weight) take on (an appearance)*
    V P n and V P P n
    come down with (an illness)* come in for (criticism)* go down with (an illness)* take after (someone)*

    The verb have is also used like an auxiliary, without an Object, following comparatives or in phrases with neither, nor, and so (see Chapter 11).

    • Maybe the kid would have more luck than he had. He hoped so.
    • He has the character to fight back. So have I.
    (iii) The `include' group

    These verbs and Objects indicate what something contains or is about.

    • On one level, the play concerns the tactics of survival.
    • The law covers religions in general.
    • The Guardian has a whole page covering the issue, with each republic dealt with separately.
    • The first of a series of anthologies features three novellas following the life and crimes of Eastender Joe Hawkins.
    • The dish further included a variety of rice which I had not previously tasted.
    • Figure 1 shows the structure of your back in graphic detail.
    carry (a picture) concern (a topic)* contain contain (information) cover (Insurance...something) cover (A law...people) cover (a topic) feature follow (someone's life)* hold house (an office) include (a component) involve (someone) show (something)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    take in (something smaller)*
    V P n and V P P n
    come down to (an issue)* deal with (a topic) run to*
    II.12 The `show', `allow', and `identify' groups

    These verbs indicate a logical relation between the inanimate Subject and the Object. They can be divided into three groups:

    (i) The `show' group
    (ii) The `allow' group
    (iii) The `identify' group

    (i) The `show' group

    The thing indicated by the Subject provides evidence for the truth of the fact indicated by the Object. We include here bear out, where the Object is a person who has said something, rather than the thing they have said.

    49 Time and again, Crosby relates, Europeans in America showed their robust health. Statistics certainly bear him out.
    • The latest experiments have also confirmed earlier results that there are fewer neutrinos than expected according to our understanding of the nuclear physics of the sun.
    • The death of a family of three who were overcome by fumes shows the importance of having gas appliances serviced regularly.
    • If you ask the parents who have children enrolled in Wisconsin's Parental Choice Program, they say it's working beautifully. But the test scores tell a different story.
    confirm indicate mark mean* prove reflect (a situation) reveal show suggest support tell*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    bear out
    (ii) The `allow' group

    The thing indicated by the Subject:

    • causes the state of affairs indicated by the Object e.g. decide, make for
    • makes possible of impossible the thing indicated by the Object e.g. afford, allow, rule out
    • makes necessary the thing indicated by the Object e.g. need, require, take
    • Sun terraces and private balconies afford a relaxing corner for simply doing nothing.
    • Only a 60 to 90 per cent reduction in acid rain would allow recovery of fisheries, wildlife and fishing birds such as dippers.
    • Ultimately, it's likely to be sale of tickets that finally decides the Festival's future.
    • Simple safety precautions should make for a safer mechanical environment.
    • Serious collecting also takes a lot of money and time.
    afford* allow carry (a consequence)* carry (a punishment) decide demand determine encourage ensure invite (trouble)* involve* mean* need* require take*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    rule out (a situation) set off (an event) set up (a process) touch off (a process)
    V P n and V P P n
    call for count towards (an achievement)* cry out for* enter into* go with* lead on to* lead up to (an event) lie behind* make for*
    (iii) The `identify' group

    The Subject and the Object are associated with each other in people's minds. This includes:

    • identifying someone or something e.g. identify, mark out
    • 50
    • representing someone or something e.g. represent, stand for
    • being a part of a situation e.g. come into, surround
    • applying to a person or situation e.g. go for
    • This general absence of fuss catches the mood of the occasion.
    • They both said yes, and that goes for me, too.
    • Buy a separate strap in case the zip breaks - a bright colour will help identify luggage, too.
    • Two factors mark her out. She listens and she knows her brief.
    • The party should stand for what people want.
    • Remote Easter Island has for generations been surrounded by an aura of mystery.
    catch (a mood)* identify represent surround
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    mark out set apart show up
    V P n
    come into* come under (a heading)* go for* stand for*
    II.13 The `hear', `interest', and `give an impression' groups

    These verbs, or verbs and Objects together, are concerned with processes that take place in the mind, such as thinking, perceiving, or feeling. They can be divided into four groups:

    (i) The `hear' group
    (ii) The `interest' group
    (iii) The `give an impression' group
    (iv) The `eyes follow' group

    (i) The `hear' group

    The Subject indicates a person or something that shares certain characteristics with a person, such as a radio receiver which can `hear'. The Object indicates something that is thought, perceived, or felt. This includes:

    • ways of thinking about something or someone e.g. decide, expect, plan
    • ways of perceiving something or someone e.g. experience, feel, hear, see
    • attitudes towards something or someone e.g. accept, believe, buy,
    • like, love, mean
    • ways of finding out or knowing about something e.g. learn, remember

    We also include here count, which sometimes has an inanimate Subject and which indicates a metaphorical form of thinking, and force back, which indicates that a feeling is not expressed openly.

    • It is difficult to accept my son's death, but he's alive in my heart.
    • It's a common belief that one of the ways in which men and women differ emotionally is that women experience a strong drive to become mothers.
    • Nancy forced back tears. No way was she going to cry in front of all those people.
    • `You look a little under the weather, Ralph.' `So would you if you'd had the night I had.' `I've already gathered that.'
    51 At that point the skies over the city lit up with a shower of fireworks and you could hear the cheering for miles around.
    • I sat down and thought hard about what I liked doing most - trudging through woods in search of animals - and hit on the idea of becoming a wildlife photographer.
    • What we've accomplished is the development of a whole system that can be learned by any able farmer who is interested in preserving and improving his land.
    • If you'd like a copy of those recipes, we can easily let you have one.
    • I put my eyes to the crack in the door. I could hear him muttering to himself and I could just make out his tall figure.
    • I'd planned a weekend away with a friend, only everything had gone wrong and I came back after only one night.
    • `You read me, Ben?' the operator asked.
    • Both loudspeakers receive the same signal, carrying both left and right sound channels, but each is preset to decode only one of the channels.
    • Black holes cannot be seen directly, so determining how many of them there are in the Galaxy is a tough task.
    • She was witty but the audience didn't take to her.
    • The girls may of course not actually be asleep, they may be reading, writing or drawing, thinking beautiful thoughts.
    The verb mind 2.4 is always imperative or used to report an imperative.
    • `Mind my heart,' he gasped. `I've got a heart problem.'
    accept (an idea) accept (an unpleasant fact) accept (advice) bear (an experience) (cannot) bear (something unpleasant)* bear (an emotion) believe (what someone says) blame (not) blame buy (an idea)* catch (a glimpse)* catch (what someone said) consider (cannot) contain (a feeling)* count (things) count (a factor) decide determine (a fact) determine (a plan) discover draw (a conclusion) enjoy establish (a fact) estimate examine (an idea) expect (not) expect experience (a feeling) face (the truth) (cannot) face (something unpleasant)* fear feel (a pain) feel (a hand) feel (something happen) (usu passive) feel (a presence) feel (the effect of something) fight (an emotion)* fix (the position of something) follow (an explanation) forget gather get (an idea)* get (a warm feeling)* get (a look)* get (a joke)* guess (information) hang (problems)* hate (will not) have (something unpleasant)* hear hide (a feeling or knowledge)* hold (an opinion)* identify ignore (a person) ignore (an argument) imagine intend (a meaning) know learn like (would) like* love (would) love* mean (what you say)* (not) mean (harm) (not) mind* mind* miss need note (a fact) notice (cannot) place (a person)* plan prefer 52 read (someone's mind or gestures) read (someone talking by radio)* realize (a fact) recall receive (a signal) regard (someone) remember cannot (remember) require review (a situation) see see (the next chapter)* share (an opinion) stand (a situation)* (cannot) stand* suffer suspect (cannot) take (something difficult)* take (someone's point) think (a thought)* understand want want (a criminal) (usu passive) watch (a situation) welcome (a situation) welcome (actions or people)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    cook up (a plan) cook up (a story) count up (things) drink in (something seen or heard)* fight back (a feeling)* fight down (a feeling)* find out (a fact) find out (a person) force back (a feeling) hear out (a person) hold back (tears or laughter) hold in (a feeling) lay aside (a feeling) make out (something unclear) make up (a story) pick out (a person or thing) pick up (a skill or idea) pick up (a signal or sound) pick up (a pattern) plan out (the future) push aside (an idea) put aside (a feeling or disagreement) set aside (a feeling) take apart (an idea) take in (information) take in (sights) tell apart (people or things) think out think over think through think up (a plan) work out (a sum) write off (a person)
    V P n and V P P n
    bear with* buy into* come across come up with* decide on (could) do without* face up to (a fact or problem) fall for fall on fix on get at (the truth)* get off on* give up on go by* go for go off* hit on hold on to (beliefs) (not) hold with* look down on look forward to look through look to (something in the future) look up to plan on put up with run away with (an idea)* see through stand by (a decision) (not) stand for* stick by (a decision) take against take to* turn against*
    (ii) The `interest' group

    The Object indicates a person. The Subject usually indicates the person or thing that makes the Object think or feel in a particular way. With some verbs, the Object indicates something such as someone's attention.

    • Jarvis looked at Kate as he prised himself up from the chair. She shook her head, indicating a half-full glass in front of her. `This will do me,' she said.
    • William was driven by an overriding passion for power.
    • Everything about her grandchildren seemed to interest Sara.
    • I lived with Mike for six months and then I arranged the wedding. Two failed marriages didn't put me off.
    53 These stories surprised and moved me, and sometimes they made me laugh. In the case of come over, come upon, be eating, enter, fill, get into, go out of, and run away with, the Subject indicates the feeling itself or a sign of it.
    • Joe jumped up impetuously. `What's eating you?' Frank asked.
    • She sighed, the tension going out of her.
    The phrasal verb get into is always used with what as the Subject.
    • I don't know what got into him. It really seems as if he doesn't recognize me anymore.
    The phrasal verbs get down, lead on, and take back have the pattern V n P only.
    • Little things get me down.
    • `That takes me back,' he said. `You used to drive me crazy with that stuff.'
    affect arrest (your attention) attract catch (your eye) claim (your attention)* concern* convince cross decide* do* draw (attention) draw drive be eating* enter (your mind)* escape (your attention)* fill fire get* hit hold (your attention) hurt interest lift (your spirits) move occupy please shake strike surprise throw touch upset worry (not) worry*
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    bring round get down* lead on put off shake up take back take in talk round throw off turn off turn on wear down wear out win over
    V P n and V P P n
    come over* come upon* get into* go out of* grow on* run away with
    (iii) The `give an impression' group

    The Object indicates an idea or feeling. The Subject indicates the reason for that idea or feeling.

    • He gave the impression of great physical strength without a mind to direct it.
    • Earth tones, such as dark greens, browns and greys, represent stability, while bright greens, yellows and turquoises suggest dynamism.
    give (an impression)* give (a feeling)* hold (no fear)* leave (an impression) suggest (an impression)*
    (iv) The `eyes follow' group

    The Subject indicates someone's eyes. The Object indicates a person or thing that is watched or seen.

    • My eyes followed the track as it weaved between the boulders, disappeared under the stream, and emerged to join the road on the far side of the bridge.
    • Mrs. Keely was saying this into the rear-view mirror, where her eyes met Mrs. Dambar's.
    54 follow* meet*
    II.14 The `say', `describe', and `call' groups

    These verbs are concerned with communication, especially speaking or writing. They can be divided into three groups:

    (i) The `say' group
    (ii) The `describe' group
    (iii) The `call' group

    (i) The `say' group

    The Object indicates what is said or written. The verb and the Object together indicate the process of speaking or writing. This includes:

    • verbs which themselves indicate communication e.g. ask, say, speak
    • verbs which indicate communication only when used with particular
    • noun groups e.g. draw, make, pass
    • Mothers come out with remarks like that and there's not a thing sons can do about it.
    • He gave out a scream of pain.
    • Some letters are either full of praise or downright rude but don't make any constructive suggestions.
    • On that day, the Hopi leaders arrived at a deserted strip of coastline near Laguna, California, to gather salt and offer their prayers.
    • When booking the flight, put in your request for high-protein low-fat meals.
    • The News of the World ran a story about the manager of pop group Take That.
    • Shirley took me into a separate room where, clipboard in hand, she ran through various personal details she'd need.
    • I took some of my drink. I didn't say anything.
    • I can't believe that Paul wrote that letter.
    add (a remark) adopt (a tone of voice) ask (a question) call (someone's name) complete (a form) cross (a cheque) (usu passive) deliver (a speech) draw (a comparison) employ (a word) enter (some figures) enter (information) fire (questions) give (a speech) hold (a conversation) hold (a musical note) issue (a statement) keep (a record) lay (blame or charges) leave (a message) make (a suggestion) make (a note) offer (advice) offer (prayer) paint (a picture) pass (sentence) pass (comment) propose (a toast) put (a question) put (a word) relate (a story) run ( a story) say (something) send (a signal) set (an exam) sign (a word) sing (a song) smile (thanks) sound (a warning) speak (a word) speak (a language) supply (a word) talk (a language) talk (rubbish) tell (a joke or story) use (a word) withdraw (a remark) write (a word) write (a book or letter) write (a cheque)
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    call out (words) cry out (words) draw out (a sound) fill in (a form) fill out (a form) fire off (a letter or question) get down (words) give out (a sigh or scream) hand out (advice) let out (a sound) make out (a cheque) put about (a rumour) put in (a request) sing out (words) take back (something said) throw in (a remark) write down (a word) write out (a report) write out (a cheque) write up (notes)
    55
    V P n and V P P n
    come out with (a remark) fall into (a conversation) run through (a list)
    (ii) The `describe' group

    The Object indicates the topic or content of the communication.

    • Each market was opened by a town crier who would announce the market's rules.
    • Grace did not answer the question directly.
    • He courageously voiced his political convictions and argued the case for a poetry with a purpose.
    • She described the building where the man and woman responsible for the theft were.
    • The pilots, as well as the police, have indicated their view that the hijackers should immediately be handed over to the authorities.
    • A journalist from the Washington Post asked if Wilder, who is divorced, had plans to marry. The governor laughed off the suggestion.
    • Miss Hoare stood in the middle of the crush, clutching a sheaf of papers as she called out names and marked them off.
    • No, I didn't mean a French teacher, I mean a teacher who teaches French.
    • A trainee journalist, Mr William Giles, has been fined five thousand pounds for refusing to name the source of information about a company's finances which he had gathered for an article in the London-based Engineer magazine.
    • During a lecturing trip to Australia, I had to play down my enthusiasm for the plants shown in some of my slides because, out there, they have become noxious weeds.
    • Twelve-year-old Sammy Hicks wrote to the World Book people to point out an error in their encyclopedia.
    • Why do you raise this subject if you don't understand anything about it?
    • In his estimation, the soldiers have become too comfortable for a fighting force. He recommended tougher and more demanding training.
    • He rejects the suggestion that he might have felt like an outsider.
    • They walked back down Piccadilly and looked in at an exhibition at the Royal Academy. Afterwards, she suggested a walk in St James's Park.
    • The president and his top advisers started their Christmas holiday at Camp David talking logistics.
    accuse (a suspect) admit (a crime)* announce announce (dinner) (usu passive) answer (a letter or question) argue (a point) argue ask (permission) attack break (some news) charge (a suspect) claim (something advantageous) confirm (what someone has said) confirm (an appointment) cover (an event) declare defend (a person) deny (an accusation) deny (a person) describe discuss explain express (an idea) give (an opinion) identify indicate (a fact or opinion) indicate (a turn) leave maintain (a fact) mean* mention mention (a person) (usu passive) name name (a price) negotiate (terms) note offer predict (an event) present (information) present (a person) promise (something) propose (a plan) propose (a theory) propose (a candidate) propose (marriage) prove (a theory) publish (an opinion) put (an opinion) qualify (a statement) quote (what someone said) quote (a fact) quote (a price) raise (a subject) read (poetry) recall recommend record (a piece of information) reject (a proposal or belief) repeat report reveal review say (the time)* strike (the time) suggest take (a topic) talk (politics)* teach (a subject) urge (a course of action)
    56
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    argue out (a point) bring forward (an argument) bring up (a subject) do down (a person) explain away (a mistake) give away (information) give away (a criminal) get across (an idea) hand down (a decision) hold back (information) keep back (information) laugh off lay out (ideas) leave off* mark down mark off (a date or item) note down pass on (information) pick up (a topic) play down play up point out put across/over (information) put down put forth (a plan) put forward put out (a story) read out (a piece of writing) report back run down set down set forth (information) set out (information) shoot down (someone's ideas) take apart (an idea) take down (information) talk down talk out (a problem) talk over (a problem) talk through (a problem) talk up throw around (a name) turn down (a request) write in (a candidate) write out (a character)
    V P n and V P P n
    ask after come down on (a side of an argument) come on to* get at* get on to* go into (a topic) lay into lead up to* pass over (a topic) pick up on sign for
    (iii) The `call' group

    The Object indicates the hearer or reader.

    • Maria whispered, `How did he get in?' Then she answered herself. `He could have taken a spare key. When he came last time.'
    • She has no phone or I'd call her.
    • `I think it's worth looking at what Tim does.' `We've got to get on to him, haven't we, on other matters.'
    • My father tried to teach me to toughen up and retaliate because boys were always picking on me since I was the weakest.
    • Despite being behind schedule he took the time to ring me.
    • If rows break out between the children, pull over and explain to them that the journey will take even longer if you have to keep stopping the car to tell them off.
    • Yang Tsiao seemed to be suffering. I urged him on but I was beginning to worry.
    address answer approach call encourage fight* invite persuade ring thank (a person) threaten welcome
    V n P and V P n (not pron)
    answer back call back call up cut off (a speaker) dress down fill in (a person) ring around/round* ring back* ring up sound out tell off urge on warn away warn off
    V P n and V P P n
    get on to* get round* pick on run to*
    57
    Structure information: Verb with Object

    a) The noun group is the Object.

    b) This structure has a passive, with the pattern be V-ed. Verbs which never or rarely occur in the passive are shown by * in the lists above. Some verbs, when used in the passive, always have the pattern be V-ed by n (see page xxx). The passive of some verbs is usually or often formed with get instead of be (see page xxx).

    c) Phrasal verb patterns are the same except that there is also a particle, P. The Object comes either between the verb and the particle or after the particle. Most phrasal verbs have both these patterns, and if the Object comes after the particle, it is not a personal pronoun. You say
    I looked them up
    or I looked up some old friends
    but you do not say I looked up them.
    This first type of phrasal verb is included in the lists with the heading V n P and V P n (not pron). However, with some phrasal verbs, the Object comes after the particle only and it may be a personal pronoun. You say
    I ran into some old friends
    or I ran into them.
    This second type of phrasal verb is shown under the heading V P n or, if the verb has two particles, V P P n.

    Structure III: Verb with Adjunct
    V n
      Verb groupnoun group
    SubjectVerbAdjunct
    I have to acta certain way.
    Very few people think that way.

    Verbs with this structure are all concerned with doing something. The Adjunct indicates how the action is done. In most cases, the Adjunct contains the noun way. This pattern is productive: many verbs occur in the pattern V n if the noun group contains the word way. The verbs listed here are the ones which are most frequently used in this way.

    • It's standard procedure not to reveal sources if you're working alone. The resistance forces always operated that way during the war.
    • Once nine out of 10 people realise they will be better off, then I think they will be inclined to vote Labour.
    act live operate play talk think vote (a political party) walk work
    Structure information: Verb with Adjunct

    a) The noun group is an Adjunct.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    58
    Other related patterns
    be V-ed by n

    The passive of V n is always be V-ed, and the person or thing responsible for the action can always be indicated by by n. However, some verbs, when they are passive, are always followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with by. The pattern is be V-ed by n. The phrasal verb pattern is be V-ed by n.The list below shows all verbs with this pattern, not just those among the most frequent 400 verbs.

    afflict back barrage beset bind bombard bound buoy characterize chasten choke colonize confront debilitate deluge edit embody encourage encumber enrage epitomize evidence father flank follow form frame girdle govern grace greet grieve herald infect inform inspire introduce leaven maul partner people plague poison precede be prefixed punctuate rack reclaim replace represent screen shackle staff strike tear top undo weigh down
    get V-ed

    The passive voice is sometimes formed with get instead of be. Most of the verbs with the passive pattern get V-ed also have the passive be V-ed. The list below shows the verbs most frequently used with the pattern get V-ed and the phrasal verbs most frequently used with the pattern get V-ed P.

    Many of the verbs that often have a passive with get indicate that something unpleasant is happening, such as attack, criticize, hit, injure, penalize, rape, and wound.

    • Eric seems to be the one paying for his incredible talent because defenders are getting away with it while he gets penalised.
    • And sometimes, of course, innocent bystanders get wounded.
    Other verbs have a passive with get to emphasize that someone else, not the person indicated by the Subject, does the action and is responsible for it, even if the person indicated by the Subject wishes the action to be done.
    • I applied for college and got accepted but I can't go now because it would cost too much to put Christopher in a creche.
    • They're wise enough to know they have to play by the rules to get noticed.
    • Anyone that has any concerns, we do advise that they get tested.
    accept activate add admit advertise affect approach arrest ask attack ban bash beat bend bite blame block book break burgle burn bust call cancel cane catch change cheat choose clamp clean clobber 59 clog complete criticize crush cut damage destroy distort divorce do draft drench drop eat educate elect establish feed fine fire fix freak fund hammer hassle hear hire hit hurt ignore infect injure interview kick kidnap kill lay lynch make marry mention move mug murder nab nail neglect nick nominate notice overheat overlook pay penalize play poison print promote prosecute publish punch punish push rape rehabilitate reject release relegate report rescue review reward rob sack scratch screw select sentence separate serve shell shoot sign smack smash solve spend sponsor stab steal sting stop strand sue suspend tangle tax tease test thump trap vaccinate wash waylay weigh wound write beat up block in blow up break down get/be caught up clog up cut off find out fob off kick out knock around/about knock down/over knock up lay off leave behind lock up mess up pick on pick up psych up rip off run over slag off sort out steam up take in take over tangle up tell off throw out trip up turn on turn down wipe out
    V colour
    See pages xxx and xxx.
    3 V pl-n
    The verb is followed either by a plural noun group. This may consist either of one noun group indicating two or more people or things, or of two or more co-ordinated noun groups. The passive pattern is be V-ed.

    This pattern has one structure:

    • Verb with Object
      The research will compare two drugs.
    60
    Active voice: V pl-n
      Verb groupplural noun group
    SubjectVerbObject
    A cook can blend raspberries and asparagus.
    Jimintroducedus.
    I can't separate the threads of my life and my work.
    Passive voice: be V-ed
      Verb group  
    SubjectVerbAdjunct (optional)
    The two styles may be contrasted.  
    Their problems and oursare dovetailed.  
    Tales like thiswill be swappedtomorrow.
    Phrasal verbs
    Active voice: V pl-n P, V P pl-n (not pron)
      Verb groupplural noun groupParticle
    SubjectVerb...Object...Verb
      Addthe numbersup.
    The teacherlinedthe childrenup.
      Verb groupParticleplural noun group
    SubjectVerb   Object
    Theyaddedupthem numbers.
    I muddledupthe pedals.
    Passive voice: be V-ed P
      Verb groupParticle
    SubjectVerb  
    The lettershave been mixedup.
    Non-smokersare pairedup.

    Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

    1 The `combine' and `separate' group 2 The `compare' group 3 The `alternate' group
    61
    1 The `combine' and `separate' group

    These verbs are concerned with joining, combining, or separating two or more things, either physically or metaphorically. We include here clink, which is concerned with making two or more things touch, and line up, which is concerned with arranging two or more things in relation to each other.

    • They clinked glasses.
    • Combine all the ingredients for the soup in a pan.
    • Eventually, an understanding of the brain might allow pleasure and addiction to be decoupled.
    • Bands like Orbital and The Orb are fusing dance and rock and creating a new set of ideas, sound and lifestyles.
    • In order to cover a double bed, you'll need to join two widths of fabric.
    • Reggie finished polishing the cocktail glasses and lined them up behind the bar.
    • I had long felt that the departments of trade and industry should be merged.
    • He did not touch the face of the pictures but used a pair of tongs from the desk drawer to separate them.
    The verb combine 3 often has an inanimate Subject.
    • Photographer Bob Sidaman says he wanted to create an image that combined technology and innocence.
    aggregate amalgamate blend clink combine conjoin connect decouple dovetail entwine fuse integrate interlink interlock intertwine interweave join lace link merge mix (not) mix overlap separate tie (usu passive) touch unify
    add up line up link up (usu passive) mix up
    2 The `compare' group

    These verbs are concerned with seeing a similarity, difference, or connection between two or more things.

    • They undertook a study to compare levels of income across countries.
    • There are people who equate those two terrible video tapes.
    • The Seeker can ask questions and weigh answers, free to juxtapose whatever ideas come his or her way.
    • I think we should not mix up the hostages and the detainees.
    compare conflate connect contrast distinguish equate juxtapose match mismatch muddle reconcile relate separate
    mix up muddle up
    3 The `alternate' group

    These verbs are concerned with making a connection between two things or activities. This includes:

    • doing two things at the same time or at different times e.g. alternate, synchronize
    • breeding two things together e.g. cross-breed, hybridize
    • 62
    • exchanging two things e.g. exchange, swap
    • taking account of two things e.g. balance, co-ordinate
    • An independent radio station set up hastily in Leningrad is alternating local and Baltic news in an attempt to keep people informed.
    • The state has got to find some way to balance these two needs.
    • The deal was we would swap keys, and when one family went away the other would water their plants.
    • There is some evidence that attempts were made to synchronize lunar and solar time.
    alternate balance combine co-ordinate cross-breed exchange hybridize interchange multiply swap switch synchronize
    4 The `introduce' and `come between' group

    These verbs are concerned with making or breaking a relationship between two or more people.

    • Alice was there and so was David and I remember introducing them.
    • Mother and I were reconciled soon afterwards, but somehow the relationship was never quite the same again.
    The phrasal verb come between has the pattern V P n only.
    • Clearly, Sarah loved that young man and someone cruelly came between them.
    bond introduce be parted be reconciled reconcile
    come between pair up (usu passive)
    Structure information: Verb with Object

    a) The plural noun group is the Object.

    b) This structure has a passive, with the pattern be V-ed.

    c) Phrasal verb patterns are the same except that there is also a particle, P. The Object comes either between the verb and the particle or after the particle. Most phrasal verbs have both these patterns, and if the Object comes after the particle, it is not a personal pronoun. You say
    I nearly mixed them up
    or I nearly mixed up the two twins
    but you do not say I nearly mixed up them.
    However, in the case of one phrasal verb, come between, the Object comes after the particle only and it may be a personal pronoun.

    d) Many of the verbs which have this pattern are ergative reciprocal verbs (see Chapter 8).

    4 V pron-refl
    The verb is followed by a reflexive pronoun.

    This pattern has one main structure:

    63
    • Verb with Object
      Lise severely injured herself in a fall.
    V pron-refl
      Verb groupreflexive pronoun
    SubjectVerbObject
    I asserted myself.
    He couldn't kid himself.
    She might scratch herself.
    Phrasal verbs: V pron-refl P
      Verb groupreflexive pronounParticle
    SubjectVerb...Object...Verb
      Pull yourself together.
    Moira stretched herself out.
    Things will work themselves out.

    Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

    1 The `hang' group 6 The `delude' group 11 The `reproduce' group
    2 The `flaunt' group 7 The `excel' group 12 The `enjoy' group
    3 The `demean' group 8 The `explain' group 13 The `hide' group
    4 The `exert' group 9 The `occupy' group 14 The `absent' group
    5 The `compose' group 10 The `stretch out' group 15 The `present' group
    1 The `hang' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing physical harm to yourself. This includes:

    • injuring yourself accidentally e.g. burn, cut
    • killing yourself in some way e.g. drown, electrocute
    • As we know from whenever we cut ourselves, blood darkens as it gets older.
    • If she'd wanted to drown herself there was a swimming pool handy.
    • Children had seen a man up a tree with a noose round his neck. He was threatening to hang himself.
    burn cut drown electrocute hang hurt inject injure kill nick prick rupture scratch starve
    2 The `flaunt' group

    These verbs are concerned with a person's self-image. In most cases, the person involved has a better self-image than he or she deserves, or is trying to make a better impression than he or she deserves. This includes:

    • trying to make a good impression on other people e.g. aggrandize, flaunt
    • thinking well of yourself e.g. fancy, flatter
    • 64
    • trying to improve your appearance e.g. doll up, preen
    • congratulating yourself
    • Dressing for success doesn't mean dolling yourself up in suits and shoulder pads.
    • I would be flattering myself if I believed I could snap my fingers and force a Swiss bank to jump.
    • The president, the government, parliament - they all flaunt themselves on the television and make pretty speeches about reform and democracy. But what have they actually done?
    • Despite his eagerness to ingratiate himself, he remained an outsider without the full, honest support of the people in his own political party.
    aggrandize congratulate fancy flatter flaunt ingratiate preen
    doll up dress up make up
    3 The `demean' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing harm to your dignity, freedom, or image.

    • The American people support capital punishment; that's wrong, too. We demean ourselves and we betray the ideals of our country when we do things like that.
    • Two of the fundamental bases of British justice are that no one should be forced to incriminate himself and that neither should he face trial twice.
    • It's sad to see so many artists prostituting themselves. Once rebellious rock 'n' roll has become nothing more than a corporate marketing game.
    • They come here because the staff are more helpful, and we'll put ourselves out to help them.
    compromise demean disgrace forget incriminate lower overreach overstretch perjure prostitute
    put out
    4 The `exert' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing something with a great deal of effort, enthusiasm, or commitment.

    • Try not to exert yourself while working.
    • I found I was having a hell of a good time with various girlfriends without committing myself.
    • I taught there for five years and I killed myself over the students because they just needed so much.
    apply assert commit exert kill stir
    burn out wear out
    5 The `compose' group

    These verbs are concerned with controlling, or failing to control, your feelings or behaviour. This includes:

    • keeping calm under difficult circumstances e.g. collect, compose
    • preparing yourself for a difficult situation e.g. brace
    • failing to keep calm and becoming agitated e.g. (cannot) contain, work up
    • adapting to new conditions e.g. acclimatize, assimilate
    • 65
    • organizing yourself e.g. organize, pace
    • India was much hotter than Tibet, and they had difficulty in acclimatizing themselves.
    • He will suppress his own fears, brace himself, and step forward to defend the weak.
    • By now, she was crying. She tried to compose herself, but could be seen visibly shaking.
    • At the moment I have to pace myself until I am 100 per cent fit.
    • If something is weighing heavily on your mind, don't just lie there working yourself up, get up and do something about it.
    acclimatize assimilate behave brace check collect compose (cannot) contain control discipline limit organize orient pace steady
    cheer up pick up psych up pull together sort out work up
    6 The `delude' group

    These verbs are concerned with having the wrong idea about something.

    • When one wants to believe something, it's easy to delude oneself.
    • Somebody's making an awful lot of money out of this. Don't you kid yourself.
    deceive delude fool kid
    7 The `excel' group

    These verbs are concerned with being successful, becoming successful, or showing yourself to be successful.

    • After a few years, I became a production secretary in radio: I wanted to better myself and found it a wonderful apprenticeship.
    • Sheppard excelled herself, breaking her own 50m time and setting a new British record.
    • You are going to have to fight for your honour and good name. Others will demand that you prove yourself, you cannot demand their respect without it.
    • Although country ministers generally suffered from declining status and income, expansion helped some pull themselves up.
    better distinguish excel prove
    pull up
    8 The `explain' group

    These verbs are concerned with talking, often about yourself.

    • They were asked to leave the room when the affair was discussed and were refused an opportunity to explain themselves.
    • Johnson pretended not to be able to hear anything Shaw said, so Shaw had to repeat himself in a louder voice.
    • If we'd had another week together, Neville might have told me all manner of things. He was struggling to unburden himself, but couldn't quite screw himself up to it.
    excuse explain express introduce repeat unburden
    66
    9 The `occupy' group

    These verbs are concerned with occupying time.

    • You are only busying yourself at home to avoid dealing with certain larger issues.
    • To occupy myself, I returned to my reading.
    amuse busy occupy
    10 The `stretch out' group

    These verbs are concerned with moving your body, doing an action involving your body, or changing your position.

    • She crossed herself because she wanted divine protection for her husband.
    • The old woman glared at him, drew herself up and stormed into the building.
    • Linda rushed round with pots of steaming tea or coffee as soon as they had seated themselves.
    • `Nothing is wrong now,' laughed Bess as she stretched herself out lazily.
    cross expose flatten preen prostrate raise seat shake support
    draw up plop down stretch out
    11 The `reproduce' group

    These verbs are concerned with reproduction.

    • Computer organisms no longer just replicate themselves, they evolve in much the same way that real ones do.
    • We are reproducing ourselves at such a rate that our sheer numbers threaten the ecology of the planet.
    • In early summer there's sweet rocket, a cottage garden flower that seeds itself year by year.
    replicate reproduce seed
    12 The `enjoy' group

    These verbs are concerned with enjoying yourself or treating yourself well.

    • I do enjoy myself, I love sports, travelling and socializing, but when I'm at work I like to be kept busy.
    • This is the time to indulge yourself. Go on, treat yourself to a new dress, splash around all the perfume you've been hoarding since Christmas.
    • Go through the whole scene a second time, changing the words to suit yourself while getting the same message across.
    enjoy fortify fulfil help indulge pig spoil suit sun
    fill up
    67
    13 The `hide' group

    These verbs are concerned with hiding or keeping away from other people.

    • His first instinct was to hide himself.
    • Williams locked himself away for 10 days with his producer to turn out a detailed filming schedule.
    • Billy tends to keep things to himself and shut himself off.
    hide isolate
    lock away shut away shut off
    14 The `absent' group

    These verbs are concerned with leaving somewhere or not being somewhere.

    • With his waiting and cooking experience, Akhtar can fill the void when staff absent themselves.
    • You are, of course, free to depart when you wish - but be warned, after such a restful break you will probably find it very difficult to tear yourself away.
    absent uproot
    take off tear away
    15 The `present' group

    These verbs are concerned with something happening. This includes:

    • something occurring e.g. manifest, present
    • something becoming established e.g. entrench, establish
    • something happening again e.g. repeat
    • He established himself in the team before this match.
    • An opportunity soon presented itself, which he eagerly seized.
    • History didn't have to repeat itself. This time, we'd get it right.
    • Just how this situation will work itself out remains to be seen.
    assert entrench establish manifest present reassert repeat
    work out
    16 Verbs with other meanings

    There are a number of other verbs which have this pattern.

    • She had decided to avenge herself and all the other women he had abused.
    • One day when I locked myself out I discovered I could put my arm through the back-door catflap and turn the key on the inside.
    • She lay still for a few seconds, trying to orient herself.
    • Pamela was beginning to reproach herself for letting Rosie down.
    The Subject of all the verbs typically indicates a person, except for burn out, where the Subject indicates fire.
    • The fire commissioner said either the fire will burn itself out or the sprinklers will get it.
    68 avenge disarm disguise dress orient relieve reproach soap
    burn out dig in dust down give up lock out
    Structure information

    a) The reflexive pronoun is the Object.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the Object.

    Other structures

    In the case of one verb, be, the reflexive pronoun is a Complement. Only the forms be and being are used.

    • `What do I have to do?' I asked. Tony laughed. `Just be yourself. Nothing more.'
    • With George she felt completely at ease, capable of being herself in his company.
    be
    5 V amount
    The verb is followed by a word or phrase indicating an amount, such as three dollars, a lot, much, two per cent. The passive pattern is be V-ed.

    This pattern has three structures:

    • Structure I: Verb with Complement
      Two and two don't always make four.
    • Structure II: Verb with Object
      The canoes held two people.
    • Structure III: Verb with Adjunct
      I had to walk four miles.
    Structure I: Verb with Complement
    V amount
      Verb groupamount
    SubjectVerbComplement
    Two and two make four.
    He weighed 18 stone.

    Verbs with this structure belong to the following meaning groups:

    69 I.1 The `equal' group
    I.2 The `measure' group
    I.1 The `equal' group

    These verbs are used when indicating how big an amount is. They are all link verbs (see Chapter 5).

    • The trust banks' joint investment in the firm equals 23 per cent of their total capital.
    • The bill could easily run into hundreds of pounds.
    • The amount involved is said to total up to four thousand million dollars.
    be equal make number total
    run into
    I.2 The `measure' group

    These verbs are used when indicating the size or weight of something or someone. They are all link verbs (see Chapter 5).

    • Twenty years ago, supermarkets averaged 20,000 square feet.
    • The skirt measures 32 inches from waistline to hem.
    • The fattest cat ever was an Australian called Himmy, who weighed 21.3kg.
    average cover extend measure weigh
    Structure information: Verb with Complement

    a) The amount is the Complement.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    c) There is only one phrasal verb with this structure: run into. The pattern is V P amount.

    Structure II: Verb with Object
    Active voice: V amount
      Verb groupamount
    SubjectVerbObject
    The schemecould costmillions of pounds.
    A mysterious bidderoffered1.5 million dollars.
    The dining room could seat 394 passengers.
    Passive voice: be V-ed
      Verb group  
    SubjectVerbAdjunct (optional)
    An extra   536is chargedfor express transfer.
      534000was takenin one night.
    70
    Phrasal verbs: V P amount
      Verb groupParticleamount  
    SubjectVerb   ObjectAdjunct (optional)
    Helivesoneight pounds a week.  
    An agenttakes in   53300for each holiday.

    Verbs with this structure belong to the following meaning groups:

    II.1 The `pay' group II.2 The `hold' group II.3 The `do' group
    II.1 The `pay' group

    These verbs are concerned with financial transactions such as buying, selling, or earning a living.

    • He is charging a hefty *533.95 plus VAT, more than double the going rate.
    • Sophisticated locals patronise the well-established jewellers, who quote fair prices; when pressed they knock off 10 per cent.
    • Dental charges are also to rise, with patients having to pay 80 per cent rather than 75 per cent of the cost of treatment.
    • I only pull in *5315,000 a year before taxes as a social worker, which is like nothing to live on.
    The phrasal verb knock off also has the pattern V amount P.
    • They should knock *532,000 off.
    The verbs cost and pay 6 have an inanimate Subject.
    • Things are expensive: a jar of black caviar costs 1,700 roubles.
    • The job now pays *53135,000 a year.
    ask average charge cost earn get make offer pay take
    cough up fork out knock off live on pull in take in
    II.2 The `hold' group

    These verbs are concerned with the capacity of something.

    • The Vacutank is a combined hand pump and tank which can hold 8.3 litres of oil or other fluids.
    • The bungalow sleeps four.
    hold house seat serve sleep take
    II.3 The `do' group

    These verbs are concerned with the speed of something.

    • Having driven that highway, I knew they were doing 70 miles an hour, at a minimum.
    71 average do
    II.4 The `gain' and `lose' group

    These verbs are concerned with gaining or losing something.

    • The group has since opened its doors to everyone and gained 250,000 members.
    • The Fidelity fund has a different charging structure. Investors lose only 2 per cent in an initial charge.
    gain lose
    II.5 Verbs with other meanings

    There are a few other verbs which have this structure. We include here average, which can indicate how much someone or something gets or produces. It can also indicate the speed or price of something, and is included in meaning groups II.1 and II.3 above.

    • All biopsies are performed by a radiologist and helpers. The time is highly variable, but allow two hours.
    • The city now averages three or four murders every year.
    • Jones has made 4,690 runs in one-day international matches.
    • The cut in interest rates does not mean a lot financially.
    allow average make mean
    Structure information: Verb with Object

    a) The amount is the Object.

    b) This structure has a passive, with the pattern be V-ed. However, not all verbs with this structure are used in the passive. The following verbs are the ones most frequently passive.

    ask charge gain lose make offer pay take

    c) Phrasal verb patterns are the same except that there is also a particle, P. In most cases, this particle comes after the verb, but in the case of knock off, the particle can also come after the Object. No phrasal verbs occur in the passive.

    Structure III: Verb with Adjunct
    V amount
      Verb groupamount
    SubjectVerbAdjunct
    Pretax profit climbed 11 per cent.
    His team lost 3-0.
    Paul swam 16 lengths.
    72
    Phrasal verbs: V P amount
      Verb groupParticleamount
    SubjectVerb   Adjunct
    The current law dates back 250 years.
    The crime rate in Rio went down 37.4 percent.

    A wider range of words and phrases indicating an amount are used in this structure than in the others. These include ten-fold and a bit.

    Verbs with this structure belong to the following meaning groups:

    III.1 The `increase' group III.2 The `walk' group III.3 The `win' group
    III.1 The `increase' group

    These verbs are concerned with changes in value, amount, or degree.

    • The nation's industrial production declined 2 percent last month.
    • In Paris, the dollar fell a fifth of a cent.
    • If you have five stocks, and three go down 75 percent, one goes up ten-fold, and one goes up 20 percent, you still have good performance for those five.
    • Antibodies increase two- to three-fold in experimental animals fed on excess vitamin E.
    • Income rose a bit for families without children.
    • The Dow Jones industrial average, which slid 37.55 points on Friday, finished up 25.94 points at 3,276.26.
    climb decline decrease dive drop fall increase jump plummet plunge rise shrink sink slide slip surge swell tumble
    go down go up
    III.2 The `walk' group

    These verbs are concerned with moving or travelling. The amount indicates the distance travelled. This is a productive use: most verbs which involve moving or travelling can be used with this pattern. The verbs listed here are those which are most frequently used in this way.

    • Bud said he'd back up a hundred yards, hide his truck off the road in the bushes, and head for where the action was.
    • You could travel a long way and have nothing to show for it.
    • Joseph walked over four miles in 90 degree heat.
    ascend go jump march run swim travel walk
    back up
    73
    III.3 The `win' group

    These verbs are concerned with winning or losing. The amount indicates the score.

    • She then lost her serve to trail 3-5 and the match was effectively over.
    • Maple Leafs began with a handicap goal, but Ellerston won 7-6.
    lead lose trail win
    go down
    III.4 Verbs with other meanings

    There are a few other verbs which have this structure.

    • There is evidence of human settlement dating back 5,000 years.
    • Although coins are more expensive to manufacture than bills, they last much longer in circulation.
    last
    date back go back move down move up
    Structure information: Verb with Adjunct

    a) The amount is an Adjunct.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    Other related patterns
    V amount adj/adv

    The verb is followed by an amount and an adjective group or adverb group. Verbs with this pattern are used when indicating the size of someone or something. They are link verbs (see Chapter 5).

    • The fence was two and a half metres high and had triple strands of barbed wire at the top.
    • The river was only fifty yards across and we were over in a minute.
    • The cushion measures 16 inches square.
    be measure stand

    These verbs also have the pattern V amount in n. The prepositional phrase beginning with in indicates the dimension concerned.

    • The brooch measures 2 inches in length, and the clip-on earrings are 1 inch in diameter.
    V amount in n
    See V amount adj/adv above.
    6 V adj
    The verb is followed by an adjective group.

    This pattern has one structure:

    • Verb with Complement
      I was hungry.
    V adj
      Verb groupadjective group
    SubjectVerbComplement
    Poediedpenniless.
    Mother's cheeksglowedred.
    Shelookedhappy.
    Istoodperfectly still.
    Phrasal verbs: V P adj
      Verb groupParticleadjective group
    SubjectVerb   Complement
      Situpstraight.
    Matching setswork out cheaper than separate items.

    Some verbs with this pattern are generally considered to be link verbs because they need an adjective after them to complete their meaning (see Chapter 5). Others are not considered to be link verbs, because they have a complete meaning in themselves, for example they indicate an action such as moving. However, for both kinds of verb, the adjective group after the verb describes the person or thing indicated by the Subject.

    Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

    1 The `be' group 5 The `die' group 9 The `break free' group
    2 The `become' group 6 The `sit' group 10 The `jump' group
    3 The `seem' group 7 The `stare' group 11 The `close higher' group
    4 The `act' group 8 The `slide open' group 12 The `gleam' group
    1 The `be' group

    These verbs indicate that someone or something has a particular quality or is in a particular state. We include here keep, remain, and stay, which indicate that someone or something remains in a particular state. The verbs in this group are all link verbs (see Chapter 5). Keep is an ergative link verb (see Chapter 7).

    • She was not young, but she was beautiful.
    • I was feeling a bit lonely.
    • They had been burning charcoal to keep warm after their electricity had been cut off.
    • The law has proved difficult to implement, however.
    • The United States stands ready to take whatever military action is appropriate to bring things under control.
    75 The verbs go 2.3 and pass are followed by negative adjectives such as unnoticed and undetected.
    • Adler wasn't going to let such behaviour go unnoticed.
    The verbs rank and rate are used with high and low. The adjective is usually followed by a prepositional phrase. This pattern is V adj prep.
    • The technology on which the machine is based, called parallel supercomputing, ranks high on the research agenda of every big computer company.
    The verb work out is used with the adjectives cheap and expensive.
    • Check washing instructions before you buy - some fabrics are `dry-clean only' which can work out expensive.
    be feel go keep lie pass prove rank rate remain stand stay
    work out
    2 The `become' group

    These verbs indicate that someone or something starts to have a particular quality or be in a particular state. They are all link verbs (see Chapter 5).

    • If your boss is opposed to your idea, your task becomes more difficult.
    • He came over all dizzy, he said, when he stood up.
    • People who've tried that in the past have ended up dead.
    • She fell silent suddenly and cast an uneasy glance over her shoulder.
    • Does your father ever get cross?
    • The audience went crazy, booing, screaming, clapping hands, some even standing on their seats and shaking their fists.
    become come fall get go grow turn
    come out come over end up finish up turn out wind up

    The verb turn 17 is only followed by colour adjectives and has the pattern V colour. It is an ergative link verb (see Chapter 7). See also meaning group 12 below.

    • Swanson's face turned white as he realized what was about to happen.
    Turn can also be used with a noun group indicating a colour.
    • Erin watched as the sun turned a deep pink-orange on the western horizon.
    turn
    3 The `seem' group

    These verbs indicate that someone or something seems to have a particular quality or be in a particular state. They are all link verbs (see Chapter 5). The verb feel 1 indicates how someone seems to themselves.

    • He felt ridiculous.
    • The Government seems unable to take control of the situation.
    • In principle, it sounds great: no pollution, free energy, and everyone lives happily ever after.
    76 Bottled fruit not only tastes delicious but it also looks terrific displayed in the kitchen.
    appear feel look seem smell sound taste
    4 The `act' group

    These verbs indicate that someone pretends to have a particular quality or be in a particular state. They are both link verbs (see Chapter 5).

    • Claire decided not to act surprised at the mention of Walker's name.
    act play
    5 The `die' group

    These verbs are concerned with actions or processes.

    This is a productive use: many verbs referring to an action or process can be used with this pattern. The verbs listed here are the ones which are most frequently used in this way and are used with a wide variety of adjectives.

    • My father died young.
    • What does it mean to grow up poor in this rich society?
    • None of them returned alive.
    arrive die emerge return
    grow up

    With most verb-adjective combinations of this kind, it is the adjective that is frequently used in this way and that makes the combination possible, rather than the verb. Negative adjectives such as unharmed, unnoticed, intact, and barefoot are most frequently used in this way.

    • She walks barefoot through the kitchen, brushing her hair and looking for Allen.
    • He is a fascinating talker and Freddy and I listen entranced.
    • I considered showing up unannounced at his front door, then rejected the idea as undignified.
    • The man's car was hit by rifle fire but he escaped unhurt.

    The following adjectives are frequently used after verbs indicating actions or processes.

    ashen-faced barefoot bareheaded blindfold breathless drunk empty-handed entranced expressionless flat-footed free incognito intact knee-deep naked nude poker-faced red-faced sober spellbound stark naked stony-faced straight-faced topless unabated unaccompanied unafraid unaided unaltered unannounced unarmed unasked unassisted unattended unbidden unchallenged unchecked unclothed uncontrolled uncovered undetected unescorted unhampered unharmed unheard unheeded unhurt unimpaired unimpeded uninterrupted uninvited unmolested unnoticed unobserved unplugged unprotected unpunished unread unrecognized unscathed unseen untouched untreated
    77 In addition, the comparative adjective closer is used after verbs of movement such as come and draw.
    • As they drew closer, the forms of three black-and-white police cars could be seen.
    6 The `sit' group

    These verbs indicate the position or posture of someone or something.

    • Behind him a man was lying dead, struck in the head by the bullet intended for Sharpe.
    • Her Bronco still sits unused in the garage.
    • He put the phone down and Jessica stood motionless, waiting.
    hang lie sit stand

    The following adjectives are frequently used with one or more of these verbs.

    awake comatose crooked dead defenceless flat forlorn helpless motionless neglected prone prostrate proud senseless speechless sprawled still stock-still straight transfixed unconscious undisturbed unfinished unopened untouched unused upright
    7 The `stare' group

    These verbs are concerned with looking. They are used with adjectives describing the expression or emotion of the person who is looking at something.

    • Others cling to older children who stare wide-eyed at the scene unfolding before them.
    • Jerry Hall watched aghast as her drunken friend leapt on to an historic four-poster bed, setting off alarms and creating mayhem in a packed museum.
    gaze stare watch

    The following adjectives are used with these verbs. In addition, some adjectives from the lists in meaning groups 5 and 6 above, for example entranced and transfixed, can be used with these verbs.

    aghast amazed appalled goggle-eyed open-mouthed unseeing wide-eyed
    8 The `slide open' group

    These verbs indicate that something such as a door moves, or makes a sound as it moves. They are used with adjectives such as open and shut.

    This is a productive use: other verbs with similar meanings, for example squeak and yawn, can be used with this pattern. The verbs listed here are the ones which are most frequently used in this way.

    • As Adam and Zelikov entered, the heavy steel doors banged shut behind them.
    • The door slid open to admit Blake.
    78 bang blow burst clang creak slam slide snap spring swing
    9 The `break free' group

    These verbs indicate that a person manages to get free from a restraint, or that an object comes away from or out of something. They are used with free or loose.

    This is a productive use: other verbs with similar meanings, for example jerk, scramble, and twist, can be used with this pattern. The verbs listed here are the ones which are most frequently used in this way.

    • The more I struggled to break free, the more I became entangled.
    • He gave a feeble shrug and tried to squirm free.
    • One of the pins had worked loose from the outer plate.
    break pull rattle roll shake spring squirm struggle work wrench wriggle
    10 The `jump' group

    These verbs indicate movement upwards or downwards. They are used with high or low.

    • The chef bent low to ignite the burners beneath the table.
    • She could run faster and jump higher than her brothers.
    bend crouch fly jump leap soar stoop swoop
    11 The `close higher' group

    These verbs are used when talking about the level of share prices or currencies. They are used with the adjectives higher and lower. Close, end, finish, and open are also used with firmer, weaker, and unchanged. These verbs are all link verbs (see Chapter 5).

    • Stocks closed lower on Wall Street today.
    • The pound edged higher against the dollar, to close up .15 cents at $1.68.
    • On Tuesday, London opened firmer on a technical bounce after Monday's broad decline.
    close creep drift edge end finish inch move open
    12 The `gleam' group

    These verbs indicate that something gives out or reflects light. They are used with adjectives indicating colour, and with adjectives such as bright and clear. We include here run, which is used when indicating the appearance of a liquid.

    This is a productive use: other verbs with similar meanings, for example glimmer, glitter, shimmer, and sparkle, can be used with this pattern. The verbs listed here are the ones which are most frequently used in this way.

    • The metal box gleamed silver in the sun.
    • Behind us the white cliffs of Dover shone bright in the morning sun.
    79 flash flicker gleam glint glisten glow run shine

    Verbs which are used with colour adjectives, and not other adjectives, have the pattern V colour.

    • Laidi blushed scarlet and looked at me.
    blush flame flush

    Both these groups of verbs can also be used with a noun group indicating colour.

    • Taken off guard, Charlie flushed a dark red.
    • The water glowed a faint yellow from the reflected lights of the city.
    13 The `set' group

    These verbs indicate that something becomes solid. They are used with solid or hard.

    • It was bitterly cold and my underwear had frozen solid.
    • The mixture will soon set hard.
    freeze set
    14 Verbs with other meanings

    There are a number of other verbs which have this pattern. With the exception of dawn and wax, they are used with only one or two adjectives, as indicated in the list below.

    • The fire had burned low and they had been sitting in semi-darkness.
    • Easter Sunday dawned bright and clear.
    • Hell, they'd fall down dead if they ran six steps, most of 'em.
    • The chair has eight adjustable positions and folds flat for easy storing.
    • In court today, Mr Alleyne pleaded guilty and was jailed for thirty days.
    • Writers have been waxing lyrical about the country house hotel for years.
    • Stay indoors, wrap up warm and don't venture out.
    burn (low) dawn fold (flat) hang (heavy) marry (young) plead (guilty/innocent) run (unopposed) stand (unopposed) stoop (so low) strip (naked) wax wear (thin) weigh (heavy)
    fall down (dead) sit up (straight) stand up (straight) wrap up (warm)

    Sometimes verb and adjective combinations are regarded as phrases, for example lie low, loom large, and run wild.

    Structure information

    a) The adjective group is the Complement.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same, except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    80
    Other productive uses

    In informal and non-standard English, adjective groups are sometimes used after verbs as Adjuncts, as in Why does he act so mean?, He continued to talk tough, and You've got to think positive.

    Other related patterns
    V adj prep
    See meaning group 1 above.
    V amount adj
    See page xxx.
    V colour
    See meaning groups 2 and 12 above.
    V -ed

    The verb is followed by an `-ed' clause - that is, a clause introduced by the `-ed' form of another verb. The `-ed' clause indicates the state that something is in, starts being in, or seems to be in. These verbs are all link verbs (see Chapter 5).

    • The dog was on a chain, which was attached to another chain that stretched the width of the yard.
    • The tanks then became trapped between barricades, and were eventually abandoned.
    • He felt betrayed.
    appear be become feel lie look seem
    7 V -ing
    The verb is followed by an `-ing' form.

    This pattern has three structures:

    • Structure I: Verbs in phase
      She started walking.
    • Structure II: Verb with Object
      He liked dancing with her.
    • Structure III: Verb with Adjunct
      They ended up fighting.
    81
    Structure I: Verbs in phase
    V -ing
      Verb group-ing  
    SubjectVerb   Completive
    The sea came rushing in.
    The governmentceasedfundingthe bank.
    He kept saying he was sorry.
    Janecannot resistbuyingkitchen gadgets.
    Phrasal verbs: V P -ing
      Verb groupParticle-ing  
    SubjectVerb     Completive
    Icarriedonwalking.  
    I gave up trying to sleep.
    Heleft offsettingthe breakfast table.

    Verbs with this structure belong to the following meaning groups:

    I.1 The `start' and `stop' group I.2 The `avoid' group I.3 The `try' group
    I.1 The `start' and 'stop' group

    These verbs are concerned with starting, stopping, continuing, or doing an action.

    • Then she burst out crying.
    • They came stalking in here yesterday and demanded to see me.
    • When I went around asking people how they felt about America, I was a little apprehensive about the answers.
    • Rather than correct her, I kept trying to change the subject.
    • I hope you're not going to start crying.
    • Stop treating me like a schoolgirl.
    begin cease come commence continue discontinue finish get go (not) go keep quit resume start stop
    burst out carry on fall about fall to give over give up go about go around/round go on keep on leave off take to
    82
    I.2 The `avoid' group

    These verbs are concerned with not doing an action.

    • Farling studiously avoided looking at Piercey.
    • I thought, I won't bother washing my hair - I'll wash it tomorrow.
    • Some teens simply hold off speaking to their parents.
    • He left word that he had rung, but carefully omitted leaving his own number.
    avoid (not) bother escape evade forbear omit (cannot) resist shun
    hold off
    I.3 The `try' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing something even though it may be dangerous or may not bring success.

    • People are still very concerned at their employment prospects, and they are not prepared to risk moving house yet.
    • I tried ringing his home, but they told me he wasn't there.
    chance risk try
    I.4 The `go riding' group

    These verbs are concerned with taking part in an activity, often shopping or a leisure activity.

    • Next time you come shopping in Safeway, why not bring with you any unwanted clean carrier bags from previous shopping trips?
    • The next afternoon Amy went riding with Gerald.
    come go
    Structure information: Verbs in phase

    a) The verb and the `-ing' form are two verbs in phase, and together form a complex verb group. This means that the actions or states expressed by the two verbs cannot be separated from each other. For example, if you start laughing, the starting and the laughing are not two processes but one.

    The complex verb group is followed by a group, phrase or clause which completes the pattern of the second verb. In the structure tables above this is called a Completive. For example, if the second verb is normally followed by a noun group, then the Completive of the complex verb group will be a noun group.

    b) This structure has no passive, but the `-ing' form may be passive, consisting of being and an `-ed' form.
    To avoid being caught, the gang sometimes cut off the phone.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same, except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    83
    Structure II: Verb with Object
    V -ing
      Verb group-ing clause
    SubjectVerbObject
    Only one personadmittedseeing him that night.
    She may fear being left on her own.
    Helikeswalking his dogs.
    Phrasal verbs: V P -ing
      Verb groupParticle-ing clause
    SubjectVerb   Object
    Shehad countedonriding home with Norman.
    The coupleare lookingintogetting a three-month visa.
    I didn't take to teaching.

    Verbs with this structure belong to the following meaning groups:

    II.1 The `like' and `dislike' group II.4 The `remember' group II.7 The `postpone' group
    II.2 The `dread' and `look forward to' group II.5 The `recommend' group II.8 The `need' group
    II.3 The `consider' group II.6 The `involve' group II.9 The `risk' group
    II.1 The `like' and `dislike' group

    These verbs are concerned with liking or disliking something.

    • I don't appreciate being treated like a suspect.
    • I hate the sight of guns and dislike touching them.
    • I don't really like having people round.
    • He preferred being an audience rather than an entertainer.
    • Many other people today said they could not tolerate doing nothing.
    adore appreciate (cannot) bear (not) begrudge detest dislike (cannot) endure enjoy hate like loathe love (not) mind mind prefer relish resent (cannot) stand (cannot) stomach (not) tolerate
    take to
    84
    II.2 The `dread' and `look forward to' group

    These verbs are concerned with attitudes towards the future. This includes:

    • not wanting something to happen e.g. dread, fear
    • wanting something to happen e.g. fancy, favour, look forward to
    • I would like to meet him but at the same time I dread meeting him.
    • She was hungry, but she couldn't face eating.
    • Angelina has spent all her primary school years in Britain and is looking forward to going on to senior school.
    dread (not) face fancy favour fear
    look forward to
    II.3 The `consider' group

    These verbs are concerned with ideas about what is going to happen in the future.

    • In the early part of December, you can anticipate making a major purchase.
    • You should consider supplementing your diet with vitamins and minerals.
    • He debated taking his car, but decided to go on foot.
    • I haven't been in any trouble and I don't intend getting into any.
    • I'd reckoned on having nine thousand pounds and I haven't - I've only got six thousand.
    anticipate consider contemplate debate envisage fantasize imagine intend visualize
    count on/upon figure on look into plan on reckon on see about
    II.4 The `remember' group

    These verbs are concerned with attitudes and ideas about the past. This includes:

    • remembering or forgetting e.g. forget, recall
    • having a feeling about something in the past e.g. miss, regret
    • I'll never forget going to Sunday school as a kid.
    • When they had calmed down they were sure to regret having revealed themselves so unguardedly when there was a stranger present.
    • She can't remember committing the murder, although all the evidence points to her guilt.
    forget miss recall recollect regret remember (cannot) remember
    II.5 The `recommend' group

    These verbs are concerned with speaking or writing. This includes:

    • talking about something done in the past e.g. admit, deny, report
    • making a suggestion about the future e.g. advise, recommend
    • discussing something e.g. debate
    • Members had debated changing the law to fight disease.
    • He denied causing death by reckless driving.
    85 The judges recommended giving more modest prizes.
    acknowledge admit advise advocate debate deny describe forbid mention prohibit propose recommend report suggest urge
    II.6 The `involve' group

    These verbs are concerned with a logical relation between two actions, events, or states. One is indicated by the Subject and one is indicated by the `-ing' clause.

    • The job of a choreologist entails teaching dancers the technique and performance of dance movements.
    • Fusion involves forcing nuclei together rather than fragmenting them.
    • Taking the engine out necessitates removing the front panel.
    • My brother had suggested that I take the bus because it would save having to find a place to park in Manhattan.
    allow entail involve justify mean necessitate permit preclude prevent save
    II.7 The `postpone' group

    These verbs are concerned with postponing the time when something is done.

    • These goods are also expensive, so people defer buying them when they are hard-up.
    • Many young couples have postponed having families because of the recession.
    defer delay postpone
    put off
    II.8 The `need' group

    These verbs are concerned with needing or deserving action or treatment of some kind.

    • Surely our feet deserve pampering all year round.
    • I asked if there were any more problems that needed sorting out.
    • Miles is in good health and doesn't cry unless he wants feeding or changing.
    deserve need require want
    II.9 The `risk' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing something that may have bad results. The `-ing' clause indicates the possible result of the action.

    • The advertisers chance alienating the customers they hope to woo.
    • Since race cars aren't insured, you risk losing everything if you hit something solid.
    chance risk
    86
    II.10 Verbs with other meanings

    There are a number of other verbs which have this structure.

    • He has abandoned a fitness regime which encouraged dining on muesli and bananas.
    • The vast majority of patients still have to endure being cut open and having several weeks off work, even for quite simple operations.
    • In many companies more effort went into generating profits than into long-term planning.
    • The profits will go towards fighting pollution and the destruction of rainforests.
    • They say that when you're playing chess you can go without eating.
    • Practise changing your behaviour in situations which are relatively neutral for you.
    discourage encourage endure mime practise
    get away with go into go towards go without play at
    Structure information: Verb with Object

    a) The `-ing' clause is the Object. The first verb and the `-ing' clause express two closely-related but separate actions or states. For example, if you regret leaving, the regretting and the leaving are two processes.

    b) This structure has a passive, with the pattern be V-ed. However, it does not often occur.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb. The phrasal verbs look forward to and get away with have the pattern V P P -ing, with two particles after the verb.

    Structure III: Verb with Adjunct
    V -ing
      Verb group-ing clause
    SubjectVerbAdjunct
    I'd die feeling guilty.
    Phrasal verbs: V P -ing
      Verb groupParticle-ing clause
    SubjectVerb   Adjunct
    We ended up having dinner.
    I was hanging around hoping to see him.

    Verbs with this structure are all concerned with beginning, ending, or spending time in a particular way.

    • The soldiers reasoned that they'd prefer to die fighting rather than waiting.
    • Their boat finished up pointing the wrong way.
    • I started off doing languages, which I quite enjoyed, but I switched to law and qualified as a solicitor.
    87 die
    end up finish up hang about hang around/round start off wind up
    Structure information

    a) The `-ing' clause is an Adjunct.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    8 V to-inf
    The verb is followed by a to-infinitive.

    This pattern has three structures:

    • Structure I: Verbs in phase
      The number of victims continues to rise.
    • Structure II: Verb with Object
      He expects to fly to Beijing soon.
    • Structure III: Verb with Adjunct
      He hurried to catch up with his friend.
    Structure I: Verbs in phase
    V to-inf
      Verb groupto-infinitive  
    SubjectVerb   Completive
    The arrangementsappearedto besatisfactory.
    Prison officerscontinuedto patrolthe grounds.
    He refused to comment.  
    Phrasal verbs: V P to-inf
      Verb groupParticleto-infinitive  
    SubjectVerb     Completive
    Dr Carey went on to spell out his views.
    These theoriesmay turnoutto containelements of truth.

    Verbs with this structure belong to the following meaning groups:

    I.1 The `begin' group I.4 The `manage' group 88 I.7 The `hasten' group
    I.2 The `appear' group I.5 The `fail' group I.8 The `chance' group
    I.3 The `try' group I.6 The `regret to say' group I.9 The `tend' group
    I.1 The `begin' group

    These verbs are concerned with starting, stopping, or continuing an action.

    • Edgar began to laugh again.
    • The social activities patients enjoyed before they became sick will continue to be enjoyed during the course of their illness.
    • Phil went on to enjoy more success at cricket than he had at football.
    • He treated us okay but I never got to like him.
    The verb come on is always used with verbs indicating the weather, with the Subject it.
    • It was coming on to rain when finally Mac's lorry arrived.
    begin cease come commence continue get grow proceed start
    come on go on settle down
    I.2 The `appear' group

    These verbs are concerned with an activity being real or appearing to be real. We include here make, which indicates that someone appears to be about to do something, but does not do it.

    • He listens to five different conversations simultaneously, while appearing to give each one 100 per cent of his attention.
    • She made to move past him. He placed himself in her way.
    • He'd only pretended to be sleeping. He'd really been watching her all the time.
    • The great storm of 1987 proved to be a blessing in disguise for Chepsea Gardens in Sussex.
    • The diagnosis turned out to be her worst nightmare.
    affect appear feign make pretend prove seem
    turn out
    I.3 The `try' group

    These verbs are concerned with trying to achieve something.

    • Though I've attempted to buy a soundtrack album, no shop seems to have heard of it.
    • For a further nine years Gladstone laboured to reverse that decision.
    • A lot of people struggled to understand why they were doing this.
    • That's what he's doing, though he tries to ignore it.
    attempt battle endeavour fight grapple labour scrabble scramble strain strive struggle try
    89
    I.4 The `manage' group

    These verbs emphasize that something is successfully done, especially something that is difficult or easily forgotten.

    • The whole of the Great Lakes was exerting a strange hold on me, which I couldn't begin to understand.
    • I still cannot understand how you contrived to get into the room with a gun.
    • With some difficulty he managed to stretch out an arm and get hold of the chocolate.
    • A gust of wind caught the parachute, dragging him along the ground until he remembered to hit the release catch at his waist.
    The verbs serve and suffice have an inanimate Subject.
    • What he learned served to improve the managerial skills needed in his present employment.
    (cannot) begin contrive get manage remember serve suffice
    I.5 The `fail' group

    These verbs are concerned with not doing an action. We include here remain, which indicates that something has not yet been dealt with, and (not) need, which has this structure when it is used to tell somebody not to do something.

    • The peace talks collapsed when the rebels failed to turn up.
    • Jane went back to bed and fell promptly asleep, forgetting to turn off the light.
    • You don't need to respond right now.
    • He completely lost his head, told a number of lies and omitted to mention one or two things that might have helped him.
    In the case of remain, the verb is always followed by a passive to-infinitive.
    • A lot of questions remain to be answered.
    (not) bother decline disdain fail forbear forget (not) need neglect omit refuse remain (not) trouble
    I.6 The `regret to say' group

    These verbs are concerned with the manner or attitude of the person doing the action. We include here choose, elect, and opt, which have this structure when they are used to indicate that someone does something by choice. We also include here hate, want, and wish which have this structure when they are used in phrases such as I hate to be rude but...

    • I gave you some new information, some different ways of looking at and thinking about your life situation, and you chose to believe what I told you.
    • They finally condescended to give her a form to be filled in by a doctor.
    • Each time the phone rings I hesitate to answer.
    • I regret to tell you that very many American lives have been lost.
    care choose come condescend dare deign elect hate hesitate mean (not) need opt presume regret tend venture (not) want (not) wish
    90
    I.7 The `hasten' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing something without delay.

    • The agent hastened to reassure him.
    hasten hurry hustle rush scurry
    I.8 The `chance' group

    These verbs are concerned with something happening by chance.

    • She and Nancy did not speak, hardly glanced at each other if they chanced to pass in the hospital corridor.
    • It was a light-hearted wartime affair which had come about because they both happened to be in the same place at the same time.
    chance happen
    I.9 The `tend' group

    These verbs are concerned with how probable something is or how frequently something happens.

    • This year's competition promises to be the best ever.
    • The front line states stand to gain from a democracy in South Africa.
    • Low-heeled comfortable shoes are best, too, as feet tend to swell if you sit still for too long.
    incline promise stand tend
    shape up
    I.10 Verbs with other meanings

    There are a few other verbs which have this structure.

    • In the industrial Midlands, pollution and weather conspired to create a perfect canopy of impenetrable cloud.
    • The religious background binds people together and helps to promote the moral and ethical standards in the school.
    • `You may live to regret those words, Archdeacon,' said the chaplain.
    conspire help live stop
    Structure information: Verbs in phase

    a) The first verb and the to-infinitive are two verbs in phase, and together form a complex verb group. This means that the actions or states expressed by the two verbs cannot be separated from each other. For example, if you begin to see something, the beginning and the seeing are not two processes, but one.

    The complex verb group is followed by a group, phrase, or clause which completes the pattern of the second verb. In the structure tables above this is called a Completive. For example, if the second verb is normally followed by a noun group, then the Completive of the complex verb group will be a noun group.

    91 b) This structure has no passive, but the to-infinitive may be passive, consisting of to be and an `-ed' form.
    He refused to be admitted to the hospital.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    Structure II: Verb with Object
    V to-inf
      Verb groupto-infinitive clause
    SubjectVerbObject
    The Presidentagreedto be interviewed.
    Turkish airlines has offered to lay on a dozen flights starting next week.
    Hepleaded to speak with me privately.
    Phrasal verbs: V P to-inf
      Verb groupParticleto-infinitive clause
    SubjectVerb   Object
    Hedidn't gooutto injure opponents.
    Governments queue up to buy US spy satellites.
    Desmond set out to find the answers.

    Verbs with this structure belong to the following meaning groups:

    II.1 The `promise' group II.3 The `hope' group II.5 The `claim' group
    II.2 The `demand' group II.4 The `like' group II.6 The `need' group
    II.1 The `promise' group

    These verbs are concerned with being committed to a future action. This includes:

    • talking or writing about a future action e.g. agree, promise
    • thinking about a future action e.g. choose, decide
    • doing something about a future action e.g. arrange, prepare
    • We should not be looking to increase salaries across the board.
    • I had planned to stay longer, but something came up.
    • Chloe had promised to take her shopping as soon as she arrived.
    • Jones had set out to intimidate and dominate Paul.
    agree arrange choose consent contract decide determine elect fix guarantee intend be looking mean offer opt plan pledge plot prepare promise propose resolve scheme swear threaten undertake volunteer vote vow
    go out set out
    92
    II.2 The `demand' group

    These verbs are concerned with persuading someone to do something or with obtaining permission from someone to do something.

    • The police asked to use Keith's video as evidence.
    • He demanded to be flown to Sweden, but the pilot landed instead at Helsinki.
    • They were so concerned about the Pacific yew tree that they petitioned to have it included on the endangered species list.
    apply ask beg bid campaign clamour demand petition plead pray
    II.3 The `hope' group

    These verbs are concerned with attitudes towards a future action or event. This includes:

    • wanting to do something e.g. hope, long, want
    • not wanting to do something e.g. dread, fear
    • expecting to do something e.g. expect, reckon
    • We expect to see her back on the screen in the autumn.
    • She hoped to find an English audience receptive to her watercolors and her images of contemporary life.
    • Graduates with first-class degrees still queue up to teach in Ulster's grammar schools.
    • He'd had his eyes on the telephone all during breakfast and he couldn't wait to get out of his chair and get at it.
    • He yearned to sleep.
    ache aim aspire burn crave desire be dying dread expect (not) expect fear hanker hope (cannot) hope hunger itch long reckon seek (cannot) wait want wish yearn
    queue up
    II.4 The `like' group

    These verbs are concerned with liking or disliking something.

    • She likes to entertain, shop and go to the theatre.
    • Douglas preferred to do his own driving.
    (cannot) bear hate like love prefer (cannot) stand
    II.5 The `claim' group

    These verbs are concerned with saying that something is true when it may not be.

    • He claims to have had no inside knowledge.
    • Dianne may well profess to admire Grace, but I suspect that deep down her attitude borders on jealousy, resentment and dislike.
    claim (not) pretend profess purport
    93
    II.6 The `need' group

    These verbs are concerned with needing or deserving to do something or to have something done.

    • Women deserve to be treated as professionals.
    • The players need to rest more than train at the moment.
    deserve need
    II.7 Verbs with other meanings

    There are two other verbs which have this structure.

    • I want my books to be as cheap as possible so that more people can afford to buy them.
    • She never learned to read or write.
    (can) afford learn
    Structure information: Verb with Object

    a) The to-infinitive clause is the Object. The first verb and the to-infinitive clause express two closely-related but separate actions or states. For example, if you promise to pay something, the act of promising is separate from the act of paying. Indeed, you may promise to pay but then not pay.

    b) This structure has no passive, but the to-infinitive clause may itself be passive, beginning with to be and a past participle.
    Everyone leaving the library can now expect to be searched.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    Structure III: Verb with Adjunct
    V to-inf
      Verb groupto-infinitive clause
    SubjectVerbAdjunct
    Hepaidto go to classical concerts.
    The paramedics rush to help.
    Shequalifiedto join a special team.
    Phrasal verbs: V P to-inf
      Verb groupParticleto-infinitive clause
    SubjectVerb   Adjunct
    Hesatbackto wait.
    Another planewas standingbyto take her to Rome.

    Verbs with this structure belong to the following meaning groups:

    94 III.1 The `collaborate' group
    III.2 The `flock' group
    III.3 The `vie' group
    III.4 The `wait' group
    III.5 The `qualify' group
    III.6 The `pay' and `charge' group
    III.7 The `wake' group
    III.8 Verbs with other meanings
    III.1 The `collaborate' group

    These verbs are concerned with reaching an agreement or doing something jointly with someone else. The verbs in this group are reciprocal verbs and in this pattern they have a plural Subject. (See Chapter 6.)

    • Three researchers collaborated to investigate how a ewe's brain changes to accommodate her need to recognise her own lamb.
    • The other parties ganged up to keep him out of power.
    collaborate collude connive conspire negotiate
    gang up
    III.2 The `flock' group

    These verbs are concerned with going somewhere in order to do something.

    • Audiences flocked to see The Beatles in their screen appearances.
    • Franklin hurried to catch the last train back to Washington.
    come flock go hurry rush
    go around/round
    III.3 The `vie' group

    These verbs are concerned with doing something in competition with other people. The verbs in this group are reciprocal verbs (see Chapter 6) and in this pattern have a plural Subject.

    • She was cheered and clapped by tourists who jostled to see her.
    • To keep customers loyal, the two firms are vying to provide the best sales and service backup.
    compete jockey jostle vie
    III.4 The `wait' group

    These verbs are concerned with waiting to do something.

    • The entire household waited to greet them.
    • I waited around to speak to the doctor.
    queue wait
    stand by wait around
    95
    III.5 The `qualify' group

    These verbs are concerned with preparing for a job or activity.

    • The two experiences helped convince Robb that he should qualify to become a doctor.
    • Women can also train to become fast jet pilots.
    qualify register train
    III.6 The `pay' and `charge' group

    These verbs are concerned with paying to do something or charging someone to do something.

    • Now they charge to take the stuff away.
    • Retailers will pay to occupy the premises the property company has built.
    charge pay
    fork out pay out shell out
    III.7 The `wake' group

    These verbs are concerned with waking. The to-infinitive indicates what happens at the time of waking.

    • One night he awoke to find her crying softly.
    awake awaken wake
    wake up
    III.8 Verbs with other meanings

    There are a number of other verbs which have this structure.

    • Parliament responded by legislating to prohibit corporal punishment in state schools.
    • She lives to perform.
    • Money is tight and the older children's godparents are pitching in to pay their school fees.
    • We sat back to wait for the phone to ring.
    • She survived to record her experiences as a cave dweller in the beleaguered city.
    legislate live survive
    pitch in sit back sit down
    Structure information: Verb with Adjunct

    a) The to-infinitive clause is an Adjunct.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    Productive uses

    The to-infinitive clause is used with two additional meanings. These uses are productive, that is, they occur with a wide range of verbs.

    96 1 The to-infinitive clause has the meaning `in order to do something'. An example is He smiled to hide his fear, which means that hiding his fear was the purpose of his smiling.

    2 The to-infinitive clause has the meaning `because something happens'. An example is She smiles to see her grandson, which means that seeing her grandson is the cause of her smiling.

    9 V inf
    The verb is followed by a bare infinitive.

    This pattern has one structure:

    • Verbs in phase
      I didn't dare disagree with them.
    V inf
      Verb groupinfinitive  
    SubjectVerb   Completive
    No politician would dare take on the mighty tobacco industry.
    I'll go see what's happening.
    I helped save those animals.

    Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

    1 The `come' and `go' group 2 The `dare' and `need' group 3 Verbs with other meanings
    1 The `come' and `go' group

    These verbs indicate that the action indicated by the second verb is done. Only the base forms of the verbs, come and go, are used in this pattern, and only in American English.

    • Why don't you come see me any more?
    • What I did was reach for my bathrobe and go open my front door.
    come go
    2 The `dare' and `need' group

    These verbs are concerned with daring or needing to do something.

    • Thomas did not dare approach the great man.
    • People should know, with absolutely no doubt, no-one needs starve in the world.
    (not) dare (not) need
    3 Verbs with other meanings

    There is one other verb which has this pattern.

    • A fever isn't always cause for concern and you can do a number of things to help reduce it.
    97 help
    Structure information

    a) The first verb and the infinitive are two verbs in phase, and together form a complex verb group. This means that the actions or states expressed by the two verbs cannot be separated from each other. For example, if you come see someone, the coming and the seeing are not two processes, but one.

    The complex verb group is followed by a group, phrase, or clause which completes the pattern of the second verb. In the structure table above this is called a Completive. For example, if the second verb is normally followed by a noun group, then the Completive of the complex verb group will be a noun group.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    10 V that
    The verb is followed by a that-clause.

    This pattern has one structure:

    • Verb with Clause
      I said that I would do it.
    V that
      Verb groupthat-clause
    SubjectVerbClause
    Iagree that the project has possibilities.
    The president orderedthat the conference be suspended.
    Hesaidthe country was unstable.
    Phrasal verbs: V P that
      Verb groupParticlethat-clause
    SubjectVerb   Clause
    Ifoundoutthey were planning to erase the tapes.
    Most of them reported back that they were continuing to enjoy good health.

    Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

    1 The `say' group 4 The `think' group 7 The `show' group
    2 The `add' group 5 The `discover' group 8 The `arrange' group 98
    3 The `scream' group 6 The `check' group 9 The `go' group
    1 The `say' group

    These verbs are concerned with speaking, writing, and other forms of communication. They indicate what kind of function the speech or writing is performing. This includes:

    • guessing or predicting something e.g. estimate, predict, prophesy
    • putting forward a suggestion or theory e.g. postulate, suggest
    • saying something in a way that shows your attitude e.g. crow, sneer

    The that-clause indicates the event or situation that is mentioned.

    • The president boasted that it would be by far the biggest service program in American history.
    • She claims she paid no money for it.
    • Many passengers complained that once they emerged from the train, there were no emergency personnel to greet them.
    • I explained that you were upset and wanted to be alone.
    • However, the article points out that trade with Britain's European partners has risen considerably since 1973.
    • He predicted that the terms would be rejected and the war would continue.
    • Taylor said he was delighted to be at the festival.
    • The kids have loved him for years while their cynical elders sneered that he was just a pretty face.
    • We all felt hungry, so I suggested that we stop for an early lunch.
    • Mr Lightman wrote that there had been a number of misapplications of funds and breaches of duty.
    Agree and concur are reciprocal verbs (see Chapter 6) which have a plural Subject with this pattern and meaning.
    • We agreed that she was not to be told.
    accept acknowledge admit advise advocate affirm agree allege allow announce argue ask assert attest aver beg boast brag caution certify claim command comment complain concede conclude concur confess confide conjecture contend crow declare decree demand deny dictate direct disclose divulge emphasize enthuse estimate explain forecast foretell grant groan grouse grumble guarantee guess hazard hint hypothesize imply indicate insinuate insist instruct intimate joke lament maintain mandate marvel mention moan move muse note observe opine ordain order plead pledge posit postulate pray preach predict pretend proclaim profess promise pronounce prophesy propose protest quip radio reason recall recollect recommend recount reflect regret remark remonstrate report request reveal rule say signal signify sneer specify speculate state 99 stipulate stress submit suggest surmise swear testify theorize threaten underline underscore urge venture volunteer vow wager warn warrant write
    (not) let on make out point out put down report back
    2 The `add' group

    These verbs indicate the relationship of something that is said or written to something else that has been said or written. This includes:

    • saying something after you have said something else e.g. add, repeat
    • saying something after someone else has said something e.g. interject, reply
    • He said the air campaign will continue and might, in fact, intensify, but he added that other forces will probably be brought in to supplement the air campaign.
    • The opponents of this view countered that the unwillingness to carry out strategic attacks would weaken deterrence by showing a lack of resolve.
    • I said: `What a lovely morning,' and he replied that it would be very hot later.
    add agree answer concur confirm counter disagree dispute interject object reaffirm reiterate rejoin repeat reply respond retort verify
    3 The `scream' group

    These verbs indicate how something is said, for example how loudly or at what pitch.

    • According to the legend, she cried out that no storm was going to stop her from finishing her ride.
    • Francis murmured that he would do anything he could and left the room.
    • She screamed that they'd killed her sons.
    bellow bleat burble chant cry declaim exclaim murmur mutter scream shout squawk wail whine whisper yell
    cry out
    4 The `think' group

    These verbs are concerned with thinking. This includes:

    • having a belief
    • knowing or understanding something
    • hoping and fearing
    • He was fantastically short of money, so everyone just assumed he sold the pictures.
    • Once I realized how much time I was spending at work, and how little I was enjoying life, I decided that things had to change.
    • The students fear that the government does not intend to fulfil this demand.
    • `I didn't know you owned a camera,' said Michael.
    • It was a calculated risk. They probably reasoned that without proof the fuss would die down.
    100 Nobody suspected that the comet might contain much smaller particles.
    • I thought you were dead.
    Agree and concur are reciprocal verbs (see Chapter 6) which often have a plural Subject with this pattern and meaning.
    • Scientists agree that these lumps of matter must originate in the asteroid belt.
    accept acknowledge agree anticipate appreciate assume believe (cannot) believe bet calculate (cannot) conceive concur conjecture consider (cannot) credit decide determine disagree disbelieve doubt dread dream (never) dreamed envisage envision estimate expect fancy fantasize fear feel figure foresee forget fret gather grasp guess hallucinate hold hope hypothesize imagine intend know marvel (not) mind muse pray prefer presume realize reason reckon reflect regret rejoice remember resolve see speculate suppose surmise suspect theorize think trust understand vow wish wonder worry
    5 The `discover' group

    These verbs are concerned with coming to know or think something. We include here verbs which indicate that someone remembers something they had forgotten or not thought about for some time.

    • We soon discovered that almost everything we had hidden had been found, and either carried off or wantonly destroyed.
    • My boyfriend left me as soon as he found out I was pregnant.
    • I noticed that a pane of glass was missing.
    • Suddenly she realized that the only people she could ask were in Granville.
    • Rigid with fear, Jessica remembered that the window was open.
    • Oh, I see you've already started.
    ascertain calculate conclude decide deduce determine discern discover divine establish find gather guess hear infer intuit learn note notice observe perceive read realize recall recognize recollect register remember see sense suss (can) tell twig
    figure out find out work out
    6 The `check' group

    These verbs are concerned with checking something you believe is true.

    • Montagu stood up and checked that the door was closed.
    check double-check verify
    101
    7 The `show' group

    These verbs are concerned with indicating a fact or situation. These verbs usually have an inanimate Subject.

    • The large size implies that the gaps were created by a star rather than a planet.
    • An argument with a friend or relative doesn't mean that you don't get on with anyone.
    • Research shows that the more children are hit, the more likely they are to be aggressive themselves.
    confirm demonstrate denote illustrate imply indicate mean prove reveal show signal signify underline underscore
    8 The `arrange' group

    These verbs are concerned with causing something to happen. This includes:

    • people making arrangements for the future e.g. arrange, fix, see
    • situations determining the future e.g. guarantee, mean
    • He had arranged that all calls from there would be charged to the police.
    • They are anxious to ensure that emergency assistance is efficiently distributed.
    • In 1981 he was appointed Provincial Superior. This meant he had to leave Huddersfield and take responsibility for over 100 priests in England, Wales and New Zealand.
    The verb mind is used only in the imperative.
    • Mind you don't slip.
    arrange dictate ensure fix guarantee mean mind ordain provide see
    9 The `go' group

    These verbs are used when you are quoting something. We include here say 6, which you use when indicating the information given by something such as a clock or a map. These verbs have an inanimate Subject.

    • The story goes that the dish was invented by Kaiser Franz-Joseph's cook, who had promised to make his master something delicious to tempt his jaded appetite.
    • The map says there's six of them.
    go say
    10 Verbs with other meanings

    There are a number of other verbs which have this pattern.

    • Like Clinton, he is gambling that a recovering economy will swell the government's coffers.
    • The notion of self-sacrifice is a nonsense. It presupposes that we can give to others something which we do not have ourselves.
    • Anastasia pretended she hadn't heard his question.
    • Federal law requires that consumers be informed whenever an investigative report is ordered.
    In the case of get out and remain, the that-clause is really part of the pattern of the noun that comes before the verb. 102 When word got out that we had spent nearly \$1.6 million on a single sixty-second commercial, irate shareholders began firing off letters.
    • The fact remains that you can produce steel much more cheaply here than you can in Germany or the rest of the European Community.
    gamble presume presuppose pretend remain require
    get out
    Structure information

    a) The that-clause is a new clause, with its own structure.

    b) This structure has a passive with the pattern be V-ed, where the that-clause is the Subject, but it very rarely occurs. However, there is a related passive structure beginning with introductory it, as in It was claimed that she often turned up more than an hour late. This pattern is discussed in more detail in Chapter 9, Section 1 (see page xxx). The pattern it V that is also discussed in Chapter 9, Section 1 (see page xxx).

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    Omitting that

    1 After the more frequent, more basic verbs such as say, think, and notice, the word that is often left out, especially in speech.

    • I said there was to be no talk of divorce.
    • I think he made a tactical blunder by announcing it so far ahead of time.

    However, that tends to be used when the that-clause is separated from the Subject by a prepositional phrase, adverb group, or subordinate clause.

    • A Foreign Ministry spokesman said at a press briefing that relations with the Community were strained.
    That is less often left out after more formal or less frequent words such as demand, estimate, and brag, and is retained when the rhythm of the sentence requires it.
    • They demanded that he step down immediately.
    • The 14-year-old brags that he has escaped from custody 31 times.

    2 In the case of meaning groups 1-5, the Subject and verb can, as with a quote clause, come within or after the that-clause, except with verbs expressing a statement or request that something should be done. The word that is not used.

    • Things didn't, he admitted, look good in Russia.
    • Italian striker Gianluca Vialli will play for Juventus next season, Sampdoria president Paolo Mantovani confirmed today.

    3 Some of the more frequent verbs concerned with speech, writing, and thought are also used in clauses beginning with as, which usually come before or within a main clause without that. This structure implies that, in the opinion of the user, what was said or thought is true, or turned out to be true.

    • As Eamonn McCabe says, now it's up to the industry to prove him wrong.
    • He had, as he predicted, immediately assumed an non-executive chairmanship.

    4 Some of these verbs can be used in a clause beginning with as or than when making a comparison between what people say or think about a situation and what it is really like.

    • I'm not as disheartened as people think.
    103 When the doorbell rang, Marianne thought it might be Jake arriving earlier than he had promised.

    5 Some verbs that have the pattern V that also have the pattern V so or V so/not, where so or not acts as a substitute for a that-clause. See pages xxx-xxx.

    Words in inverted commas

    Sometimes some of the words in the that-clause are put in inverted commas. The inverted commas indicate that the words inside them are the actual words used, or have had only an appropriate change of tense and reference. Compare V with quote (pages xxx-xxx).

    • On our most recent trip, our luncheon hostess commented on his attractiveness. I replied that we were `only friends'.
    • He now murmured that `he needed a drink or he would die'.
    Should or subjunctive in that-clause

    Some verbs can have should or a subjunctive in the that-clause. They are concerned with statements or requests that something should be done.

    • The government has ordered that people should not gather in groups of more than two on the streets.
    • I propose that we examine two basic trends, moving in opposite directions.
    • I suggested that we taper off the counseling sessions.
    advise advocate agree ask beg command decree demand direct insist instruct intend move ordain order plead prefer propose recommend request require rule specify stipulate suggest urge
    Indicating the speaker's intention

    Verbs are usually used with the pattern V that in order to describe what someone else has said or thought. However, some verbs with this pattern are often used in the simple present tense, with I or we as the Subject, as a preface to a statement, in order to indicate what kind of statement the speaker intends to make.

    • I confess I'm sorry for her.
    • I insist that the funds be returned.

    Except in the case of verbs concerned with statements or requests that something should be done, and the verb disagree, the Subject and verb can come after or within the clause. The word that is not used.

    • This, I admit, is still an open question.
    • I'll come back for that, I promise.
    acknowledge admit advise agree bet concede confess confirm contend declare demand disagree guarantee insist maintain move pledge pray predict promise propose recommend submit suggest swear
    104 Some verbs are used in this way with a modal: usually would, must, or could in a statement, and may, can, or could in a request.
    • I must stress that this is an exceedingly rare complication.
    • May I just say that we appreciated the understanding and help of all those who felt for us in our misfortune.
    add admit agree argue claim comment confess contend deny emphasize insist mention observe say state stress testify

    Note that the verbs deny and disagree add a negative meaning to what you are saying.

    • I disagree that it is a relatively easy matter to negotiate over hostages.
    • I phone twice a day but I can't deny I miss them.
    Other related patterns
    V the fact that

    Verbs concerned with feeling or thinking which do not have the pattern V that can be followed by the fact and a that-clause, to form a structure which has a similar function to that of V that.

    • But then the moment comes when they have to face the fact that they will never, ever see their child again.
    • I decided to give up because I can no longer ignore the fact that it is bad for my health.

    Some verbs with the pattern V that can also be followed by the fact that, for extra emphasis.

    • You must accept the fact that you are older than you used to be.
    V into n that

    The verb is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with into, and a that-clause. The prepositional phrase indicates the person who is addressed.

    • He's always drumming into us that we must be consistent.
    drum
    V on/upon n that

    The verb is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with on or upon, and a that-clause. The prepositional phrase indicates the person who is addressed.

    • But the C.O. continues to impress on me that I am too old for this job. I think he wants to force me to relinquish my commission.
    105 impress
    V to n that

    The verb is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with to, and a that-clause. The prepositional phrase indicates the person who is addressed, or the person to whom a fact is demonstrated. The phrasal verb pattern is V P to n that.

    • David admitted to the clerk that he had been at the scene and had lent the other youth a knife to get into cars.
    • You will have to demonstrate to the court that the repairs are reasonably necessary to preserve your property.
    admit announce boast brag comment complain confess confide declare demonstrate disclose explain grumble hint indicate intimate mention pray prove recommend remark repeat report reveal say show signal stress submit suggest swear whisper write (not) let on point out
    V with n that
    See page xxx.
    11 V wh
    The verb is followed by a finite wh-clause.

    This pattern has one structure:

    • Verb with Clause
      Can you suggest what I should say to her?
    V wh
      Verb groupwh-clause
    SubjectVerbClause
    We cannot estimate what the local interest will be.
    Statistical factsillustratedhow dreadful conditions have become.
    People don't notice whether it's winter or summer.
    She understood why her mother just gave up and died.
    106
    Phrasal verbs: V P wh
      Verb groupParticlewh-clause
    SubjectVerb   Clause
    She couldn't figure out what was wrong with her.
    No-onehas set outhow the scheme will work.
      Think through what you need.

    Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

    1 The `ask' group 3 The `discover' group 5 The `determine' group
    2 The `think' group 4 The `show' group 6 Verbs with other meanings

    If a verb is usually used with only one or two wh-words, this is indicated in the lists below.

    1 The `ask' group

    These verbs are concerned with speaking or writing. This includes:

    • asking for information e.g. ask, query
    • agreeing or discussing e.g. argue, discuss
    • giving information e.g. disclose, explain

    With the verbs which are concerned with asking for information, the wh-clause indicates the question that someone wants to have answered, or might want to have answered. For example, in the clause He asked who I was, the wh-clause indicates a question beginning with who.

    • Don't ask who my informant was, because I'm not going to tell you.
    • The government is also debating what sort of treaty it wants.
    • She began to explain where each muscle was, and urged him to concentrate on that particular spot as she worked it.
    • A passer-by inquired why the television cameras were there.
    • Note down when you first became noticeably fatigued.
    • Toy companies suggest what age of child a toy would be suitable for.
    • During his visit, he underlined how critical the grain credits are to the Soviet Union.
    The verbs agree, argue 4, debate, and discuss are reciprocal verbs (see Chapter 6) and often have a plural Subject with this pattern.
    • We can argue whether we should have a press conference or not.
    acknowledge advise affirm agree announce argue (how/whether) articulate ask chronicle confess confirm debate declare demand describe detail (how) dictate disclose discuss dispute divulge emphasize (how) explain explain (why) forecast guarantee hint hypothesize illustrate indicate inquire intimate mention note proclaim propose (how) query recall recommend recount remark (how) report 107 reveal say see specify state stipulate stress suggest underline underscore warn
    let on note down point out put down set out
    2 The `think' group

    These verbs are concerned with thinking about something. This includes:

    • knowing or understanding something
    • forgetting or remembering something
    • understanding something wrongly e.g. mistake, underestimate
    • having an attitude towards a situation e.g. care, mind
    • wondering or speculating about a situation e.g. consider, surmise
    • thinking about the future e.g. foresee, predict
    • I've never known her not to care what she looked like before.
    • Observers doubt if this Sunday's elections will produce a government able or willing to tackle the economic crisis.
    • They can accurately foretell whether a marriage will work or not.
    • I rarely went to the movies and I forgot what it was like to eat in a fancy restaurant.
    • The last time I saw him, he said he was going to try and get to America. But I don't know whether he made it or not.
    • No one should mistake how serious it is.
    • It's too early to speculate where the problem occurred.
    • They don't stop to think who's going to do the actual basic work.
    • Brand wondered what thoughts were going through her mind.
    The verb agree is a reciprocal verb and often has a plural Subject with this pattern.
    • They are furious. They want action. But they don't agree what the problem is or what the action should be.
    accept acknowledge agree anticipate appreciate (cannot) believe care (cannot) conceive conjecture consider debate decide determine doubt (if/whether) envisage envision fantasize figure foresee foretell forget guess hypothesize imagine know marvel (how) mind (if) (not) mind mistake misunderstand ponder predict reflect (how) rehearse remember resolve see speculate surmise suspect think underestimate understand visualize wonder worry
    3 The `discover' group

    These verbs are concerned with coming to know something or bringing something to mind. This includes:

    • working something out e.g. analyse, calculate
    • finding something out e.g. discover, investigate
    • realizing something e.g. realize, twig
    • remembering something you had forgotten
    • finding something out through the senses e.g. catch, feel
    • Keep a record of how much you watch each week and calculate what it amounts to a year.
    • `Is this really necessary?' he shouted, after failing twice to catch what he was being told.
    108 An inquiry was underway last night to discover why Evans was not handcuffed to his police escort.
    • I wanted to have a look at the book on my own to find out what was going on.
    • You can judge how warm your cat is by the posture he adopts.
    • The study is following the health of over a million people to learn who gets cancer and why.
    • How easy is it to pinpoint what makes a face appealing to us?
    • After meandering down endless country lanes like the bottoms of ditches I realized why we were led astray: someone had turned a signpost around.
    • Several times she heard her name being called but when she turned around to see who it was, no one was in the room.
    • It's been nagging away at me for ages, but now I've finally twigged who Noel Edmonds reminds me of.
    • You have to weigh up whether a human life is more important than an animal's life.
    The verb look is used only as an imperative.
    • Hey, Mom, look what I can do.
    analyse ascertain assess calculate catch check decide deduce detect determine discern discover divine establish estimate (cannot) fathom feel find guess hear investigate judge learn look note notice observe perceive pinpoint prove read realize recall recognize recollect reconstruct register remember (cannot) remember see sense suss (can) tell tell think twig verify weigh
    fathom out figure out find out make out piece together pin down puzzle out suss out think through weigh up work out
    4 The `show' group

    These verbs are concerned with showing that a situation exists or showing what it is like.

    • People can provide practical help or demonstrate how you can overcome a particular problem.
    • The director prefers to show what a hideous and futile business fighting a war can be.
    The verbs indicate, show 2, underline, and underscore always have inanimate Subjects. The other verbs in this group sometimes have inanimate Subjects.
    • A hormone profile will indicate whether there is a possible problem.
    • The incident underlines how easily things can go wrong on holiday.
    confirm (whether) demonstrate demonstrate (how) illustrate indicate prove (whether) reveal show signal underline underscore
    5 The `determine' group

    These verbs are concerned with influencing a situation.

    • Vacant land taxes enable the government to influence where development occurs.
    The verbs decide, define, determine 1, and dictate always have an inanimate Subject. The verb influence sometimes has an inanimate Subject.
    • The final exam determines whether you can sit for university entrance or not.
    109 Apart from habits we picked up as children, there are many other factors which influence what we choose to eat.
    decide define determine dictate influence plan
    6 Verbs with other meanings

    There are two other verbs which have this pattern.

    The verb see is followed by a clause beginning with if or what.
    • I'll give you a cool wash, and then we'll see if we can make your bed more comfortable.
    In the case of remain, the wh-clause is really part of the pattern of the noun that comes before the verb.
    • But the question remains whether science is capable of ensuring that bad research is caught and bad researchers punished.
    remain see
    Structure information

    a) The wh-clause is a new clause, with its own structure.

    Not all verbs that are sometimes followed by a clause beginning with a wh-word have the pattern V wh. For example, the following sentence is not an example of a V wh pattern:

    Revson knew what it takes many people a lifetime to learn.

    In this example, what it takes many people a lifetime to learn occurs in the place of an ordinary noun group. It could be paraphrased as the thing that it takes many people a lifetime to learn.

    Compare this with a sentence that does have a V wh pattern:

    • I knew what his job was.

    In this example, what his job was does not occur in the place of an ordinary noun group. It indicates that something was unknown, and could be paraphrased as what it was that his job was.

    b) This structure has a passive, with the pattern be V-ed. The wh-clause is the Subject. However, the passive does not often occur, and not all verbs with this structure occur in the passive at all. The following verbs are the ones that are most frequently used in the passive.

    decide demonstrate describe detect determine dictate discuss explain indicate reveal underline

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is also a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    110
    Other related patterns
    V of n wh

    The verb is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with of, and a wh-clause. The prepositional phrase indicates the hearer or reader.

    • Kay inquired of Seaton how things were these days over in Cremorne.
    inquire
    V on/upon n wh

    The verb is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with on or upon, and a wh-clause. The prepositional phrase indicates the hearer or reader.

    • I impressed on him what a huge honour he was being offered and urged him to accept it.
    impress
    V to n wh

    The verb is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with to, and a wh-clause. The prepositional phrase indicates the hearer or reader. The phrasal verb pattern is V P to n wh.

    • I don't like people dictating to me what I should do and what I shouldn't do.
    • Let me explain to you how this works.
    admit confess demonstrate dictate disclose explain indicate mention prove reveal show suggest (not) let on
    12 V wh-to-inf
    The verb is followed by a to-infinitive clause introduced by a wh-word.

    This pattern has one structure:

    • Verb with Object
      I knew what to do.
    V wh-to-inf
      Verb groupwh-to-infinitive clause
    SubjectVerbObject
    I've forgotten what to say.
    Wehave to discusshow to divide the land.
    111
    Phrasal verbs: V P wh-to-inf
      Verb groupParticlewh-to-infinitive clause
    SubjectVerb   Object
    Icouldn't figureoutwhat to do.
    Iwas trying to workoutwhether to run away from school.

    Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

    1 The `describe' group 2 The `discover' group 3 The `decide' group
    1 The `describe' group

    These verbs are concerned with showing or telling someone how to do something. The Subject is usually a person or something that has been written, but in the case of indicate, it may also be an experiment.

    With most of the verbs in this group the to-infinitive is most frequently introduced by how, but in the case of indicate it is most frequently introduced by where.

    • The book describes how to set up a self-help group.
    • Medical studies can never prove causation but can only indicate where to look for the real cause.
    • Are your cosmetics past their sell-by date? We reveal how to make them last longer.
    • Some American reviewers have criticised him for failing to suggest how to govern a modern society without a belief in progress.
    advise demonstrate describe explain illustrate indicate instruct reveal say show specify suggest
    2 The `discover' group

    These verbs are concerned with finding out how to do something or whether to do something.

    With most of the verbs in this group the to-infinitive is most frequently introduced by how.

    • The computer calculates how to move each individual joint of each finger, and the joints in the arm.
    • People discovered how to cultivate cereals thousands of years ago.
    • In every library and bookshop there's a mass of information if you want to find out what to do for your children.
    • The Environmental Protection Agency is investigating whether to make these tests compulsory.
    • The team boss was weighing up what to do about the drastic rule changes.
    ask assess calculate check determine discover establish guess investigate learn see think
    112 figure out find out puzzle out weigh up work out
    3 The `decide' group

    These verbs are concerned with thinking or talking about how to do something or whether to do something.

    With most of these verbs, the to-infinitive is most frequently introduced by whether or how, but in the case of argue it is most frequently introduced by whether alone, whereas in the case of imagine, plan, and rehearse, whether is never or rarely used.

    • The Prime Minister is now deciding whether to continue to fight to retain her position as party leader.
    • How to implement such tactics was discussed on Birmingham's local radio station.
    • She began to plan how to get out of town without being caught.
    The verbs argue, debate 3, and discuss are reciprocal verbs (see Chapter 6) and have a plural Subject.
    • It's like people arguing whether to put out a fire in the house while the house burns down.
    argue consider debate decide determine discuss figure imagine judge plan ponder rehearse
    4 The `remember' group

    These verbs are concerned with knowing, remembering, forgetting, and understanding what to do or how to do something. With most of the verbs in this group the to-infinitive is most frequently introduced by how or what, but in the case of know, it is sometimes also introduced by whether.

    • I've forgotten what to say.
    • Kemp didn't know whether to believe her or not.
    • I just couldn't remember how to spell the most simple of words.
    • I couldn't see how to make money.
    forget know realize recall remember (cannot) remember see think understand
    Structure information

    a) The wh-word and the to-infinitive clause together form the Object.

    b) This structure has a passive, with the structure be V-ed. However, the passive does not often occur.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is also a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    13 V with quote
    The verb is used with a quote clause.

    This pattern has one structure:

    • Verb with Clause
      `Hello,' he said.
    V with quote
    The Subject, Verb, and Clause can be arranged in five different ways.
    quote clauseVerb group  
    ClauseVerbSubject
    `But the blood on the back seat?'objectedParslow.
    `Don't be silly, Dawn!'said Quaver.
    quote clause   Verb group
    ClauseSubjectVerb
    `No, no, no,'shecried.
    `Someone in your family?'Browne suggested.
    quote clause...Verb group   ...quote clause
    Clause...VerbSubject...Clause
    `Yes,'repliedthe man,`I am.'
    `This,'saidAnthony,`is going to take some time.'
    quote clause...   Verb group...quote clause
    Clause...SubjectVerb...Clause
    `Yes,'sheadmitted,`it will.'
    `So why,'heasked,`don't they just leave?'
      Verb groupquote clause
    SubjectVerbClause
    Hereplied:`It's nothing'.
    A police spokesmansaid:`It is a mystery'.
    114
    Phrasal verbs: V P with quote
    The Subject, Verb, and Clause can be arranged in the same five ways as for verbs with the pattern V with quote. One way is shown below.
      Verb groupParticlequote clause
    SubjectVerb   Clause
    Ishoutedout`I'm OK!'

    Note that the only verb that is frequently used with the pattern V with quote in conversation is say, as shown in the example in meaning group 1 below.

    Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

    1 The `say' group 3 The `scream' group 5 The `sneer' group
    2 The `add' group 4 The `gasp' group 6 The `think' group
    1 The `say' group

    These verbs are concerned with speaking, writing, and other forms of communication. They indicate what kind of function the speech or writing is performing. We include here read 1 which indicates that someone understands something written.

    • `Mr McClintock,' she announced, `has decided to go and visit the bank in London.'
    • `What's the matter?' she asked, backing away a step.
    • `I'm sorry,' Meg blurted out. `I won't do it again, I promise.'
    • `We have been told nothing,' claims Mr Matveyev.
    • The note had slipped down behind the teapot. She read, `Ta for these things, but I don't need them yet. Thanks for everything.'
    • `How he lost, I shall never know,' remarked Lord Howard somewhat wistfully.
    • `Perhaps I should get the others,' he said, and made for the door.
    • `Where the hell did these guys come from?' Kravis wondered aloud.
    • `How depressed I am,' he wrote in his diary.
    When say is used in conversation, the Subject and verb nearly always come before the quote clause.
    • Yeah 'cos somebody over there said, erm, `Oh somebody at number a hundred and seventy-something has found a cat,' and I said, `Oh, is it white?', and he said, `Yeah, I think so, I'm not sure,' and it was all like this, and I was saying, `Oh, it must be her, it must be her.'
    admit advise affirm allege announce apologize argue ask assent assert attest aver avow banter beg beseech blurt bluster boast brag cable caution challenge chorus claim command comment complain concede conclude confess confide console contend counsel declare deduce demand entreat estimate exhort explain go grouse grumble guess hazard hedge 115 implore inquire insist instruct jest joke maintain marvel moan muse note observe offer opine order philosophize plead pray predict proclaim promise pronounce protest put query quip read reason recall remark reminisce report reprove request say scold scrawl speculate state stress suggest summarize tease telegraph temporize urge venture volunteer vow warn wheedle whinge wonder write
    blurt out burst out
    2 The `add' group

    These verbs indicate the relationship of something that is said or written to something else that has been said or written. This includes:

    • saying something first or last e.g. begin, finish
    • saying something after you have said something else e.g. add, repeat
    • saying something after someone else has said something e.g. interject, reply
    • Mr Brown added: `We are a very broadly spread business. We are not dependent on the UK market.'
    • `The fire seems to be behind that door,' Judy began.
    • `All this publicity helps build the brand's renown,' chipped in Frederik Zimmer.
    • `You're -' `Please,' she interjected. `Let me tell you in my own way.'
    • `You knew her?' he asked. `Of course,' she replied.
    add agree amend answer begin conclude concur continue correct counter echo end finish interject interpose interrupt intervene object persist prompt reiterate rejoin repeat reply respond resume retort riposte
    break in butt in chime in chip in cut in go on pipe up put in
    3 The `scream' group

    These verbs indicate how something is said, for example how loudly or quickly, or at what pitch. Some verbs, such as wail and rasp, also indicate the feeling that the speaker has (see also meaning group 5 below).

    Most of these verbs are usually used in fiction rather than in journalism or conversation.

    • She called out, `Nina, come in here and look at this.'
    • `I guess you guys don't mind if I smoke?' he drawled.
    • She hesitated before gabbling, `I bought them this afternoon. I was trying them on.'
    • When he came back I asked him whether it was still raining. `Don't know,' he muttered. `I didn't notice.'
    • `Traitor!' she screamed.
    • `He's coming,' Egan whispered.
    116 babble bark bawl bellow bleat boom bray breathe burble call chant chirp chirrup coo croak croon cry declaim drawl ejaculate exclaim gabble growl hiss holler howl intone lisp mouth mumble murmur mutter pipe purr rasp roar scream screech shout shriek shrill sing slur splutter sputter squawk squeal stammer thunder trill twitter wail wheeze whine whisper yell
    boom out call out cry out holler out rap out shout out sing out
    4 The `gasp' group

    These verbs are used to express speech accompanied by an expression, gesture, or non-verbal sound. They are usually used in fiction rather than in journalism or conversation.

    • `Do you know what this means?' I gasped, laying a hand on Sauter's shoulder.
    • `Go ahead,' she smiled.
    • `Oh, Dennis,' she sobbed. `I'm sorry. I really am.'
    beam cackle chortle chuckle gasp giggle grunt guffaw gulp laugh nod pout sigh smile sniff sniffle snigger snort sob wince
    5 The `sneer' group

    These verbs indicate the feeling expressed or felt by the person speaking, for example anger, enthusiasm, surprise, scorn, or unhappiness. Many of these verbs also indicate the way that something is said, to some extent.

    Most of these verbs are usually used in fiction rather than in journalism or conversation.

    • `This is great!' enthused Francis.
    • `It's monstrous!' Jackie fumed. `I've got a good mind to - '
    • `Takes some of the heat off you, doesn't it?' he sneered.
    • `Take him to the checkpoint!' Bykov spat out.
    crow enthuse explode expostulate exult froth fume groan gush huff jeer jibe lament moan mock rage rant rave rhapsodize scoff snap snarl sneer spit storm whimper
    spit out
    117
    6 The `think' group

    These verbs are concerned with thinking. Sometimes quotation marks are not used around the quote clause.

    • What a terrible scenario, I thought.
    • Boisi was puzzled to see senior executives such as Cohen and Robinson darting about. `Who's in charge here?' he wondered.
    muse think wonder
    7 The `go' group

    These verbs are used when quoting a piece of writing or something such as a song or poem. They have an inanimate Subject.

    • `You can't kill the spirit, she is like a mountain,' went the Greenham women's chant.
    • The sign read: SPEED ZONE AHEAD 35 MPH.
    go read run say
    Structure information

    a) The quote clause is a new clause, with its own structure. It may be one word, such as yes, or it may be a long speech. The Subject and verb most frequently come after the quote clause or in the middle of it, but they sometimes come before it.

    b) The order of Subject and verb is also variable; the Subject may come before or after the verb. Before a quote, the Subject usually comes first, although in journalism, the verb sometimes comes before the Subject:
    Said Mr. Fellmeth: `We don't necessarily need more lawyers. We need more competent ones.'
    After a quote, the Subject may come first or second, unless it is a personal pronoun. If the Subject is a personal pronoun, in modern English it always comes first.

    c) This structure has no passive.

    d) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    Other related patterns
    V after n with quote

    The verb is used with a quote clause and is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with after. The Subject always comes before the verb.

    Most verbs with this pattern indicate that someone is speaking loudly. The prepositional phrase indicates who is being addressed. The person being addressed is moving away from the speaker.

    • `And don't forget to send Kenny for those items!' the Duchess called after her.
    call shout yell

    The verb repeat indicates that someone repeats what someone else has just said. The prepositional phrase indicates the first speaker.

    118 Then Bishop Paulk asked everyone to repeat after him, `The Lord is God' and 3,000 voices affirmed that He was. repeat
    V at n with quote

    The verb is used with a quote clause and is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with at. The Subject usually comes before the verb.

    These verbs indicate that someone is speaking loudly, angrily, or forcefully. The prepositional phrase indicates who is being addressed.

    • `Don't panic,' I yelled at him.
    bark bawl bellow hiss holler scream shout shriek snap snarl yell
    V of n with quote

    The verb is used with a quote clause and is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with of. The Subject usually comes before the verb. The prepositional phrase indicates who is asked a question. This pattern does not often occur.

    • `Who am I?' I inquired of myself.
    ask inquire
    V to n with quote

    The verb is used with a quote clause and is followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with to. The phrasal verb pattern is V P to n with quote. The Subject usually comes before the verb. The prepositional phrase indicates who is being addressed.

    • `Your cat isn't very friendly,' a woman complained to Reggie.
    • `This is all very well,' he muttered to himself, `but what about my dinner?'
    • I said to Al, `Wait a minute. What time did Steve call you?'
    In the case of muse, reason, say 4, think, and wonder, the noun group following the preposition is always a reflexive pronoun. This pattern is V to pron-refl with quote. These verbs indicate that someone is thinking. Sometimes quotation marks are not used around the quote clause.
    • `No,' he said to himself. `It's not going to be like that.'
    • Just what I was afraid of, Tatiana thought to herself.
    admit announce boast brag cable call comment complain confess confide crow cry declare exclaim explain explode expostulate exult fume go groan grouse grumble gush hiss holler insist joke lament moan mumble murmur muse mutter observe proclaim protest quip rage reason 119 remark report say scream shout suggest telegraph think wail whimper whisper wonder write yell call out

    Most of the verbs in meaning group 3 can have this pattern, but it is most frequent with the ones included in the above list.

    V with sound

    The verb is used with a word or group of letters representing a sound, which is not usually written in inverted commas. The Subject and verb may come before or after the sound word. If the sound word comes first, the Subject usually comes after the verb, unless it is a personal pronoun.

    The verb indicates that a thing or an animal makes a sound.

    • The television went bang and then I heard an explosion in the kitchen and it was the new microwave.
    • Grrrr went the dog.
    go
    V as quote

    The verb is followed by a prepositional phrase consisting of as and a quote clause, which may be a single word. The quote clause indicates the meaning of a word or phrase. The Subject indicates the word or phrase concerned.

    • Two enterprising Neopolitan journalists are launching the game of Tangentopoli tomorrow. The name roughly translates as `Bribe City'.
    translate
    14 V so/not
    The verb is followed by so or not.

    This pattern has one structure:

    • Verb with Object
      I don't think so.
    120
    V so/not
      Verb groupso/not
    SubjectVerbObject
    Ibelieveso.
    Hehopesnot.
    Ishould imagineso.
    Iwouldn't have thoughtso.

    Most of the verbs with this pattern are used to indicate what someone thinks or believes about something that has already been mentioned. The pattern is used widely in conversation, where the Subject is often I or you.

    We include here the verb say, which is used to report what someone said. It is also used to express an opinion, as in I would say so. The phrase if I may say so is used to introduce or accompany an opinion, as in Utter nonsense, if I may say so.

    These verbs have the affirmative V so and the negative V not. In the case of the verbs think, believe, and imagine, the negative is also often formed with do not or another auxiliary or modal, and so, as in I don't think so.

    In the case of the verbs assume, fear, hope, presume and suspect, the negative is always formed with not, as in I hope not. You do not say I don't hope so.

    • Can anyone who eats bacon sandwiches campaign with integrity against people who eat whale meat? The Norwegians do not believe so.
    • `You don't really suspect I'd be involved in something like that, do you?' `I certainly hope not, Tony.'
    • `What is he doing here on a weekday? Is something wrong?' `From his expression I would say so.'
    • She admired him because he was clever and adroit, and because everyone whom she knew thought so too.
    assume believe fear hope imagine presume say suspect think
    Verbs with other meanings

    There is one verb, do, which does not fit into the above meaning group. This has the affirmative do so only - the negative is formed with an auxiliary or modal.

    Do so can be used to stand for any verbal group. It usually refers back to another verbal group, which may be one in a previous sentence. Do so has an important function in repeating given information while introducing something new. In the first example below, were doing so repeats the information majored in education while the new information in the clause is in 1983 only 15 percent.
    • In 1963 about half of all women undergraduates majored in education. In 1983 only 15 percent were doing so.
    • A stewardess said the plane was vibrating so much that she presumed the captain was going to declare an an emergency, but he did not do so.
    Do so occasionally refers forwards to a verbal group in the same sentence.
    • If patients wish to do so, they can buy their own needles and bring them to the acupuncturist to use for their own treatment.
    121 do
    Structure information

    a) So or not is the Object.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    15 V as if, V as though
    The verb is followed by a finite clause beginning with as if or as though. In informal English, the clause sometimes begins with like, although some people think this is incorrect.

    This pattern has one structure:

    • Verb with Clause
      I felt as if I'd been hit.
    V as if/as though
      Verb groupas if/as though-clause
    SubjectVerbClause
    Heactedas if he was expecting me.
    Youlookas if you've seen a ghost.
    Hesoundsas though he's enjoying it.

    Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:

    1 The `look' group

    These verbs are used to indicate how someone or something seems. They are all link verbs (see Chapter 5). The verb feel indicates how someone seems to themselves. The clause after the verb indicates a situation that would make someone or something have the qualities they appear to have.

    • He felt as though he had run five miles.
    • You look like you need a rest.
    • Isabel's voice sounded as if she had been crying.
    appear feel look smell sound taste
    2 The `act' group

    These verbs are concerned with behaving or speaking. The clause indicates a situation in which the behaviour or what is said would be expected or appropriate.

    This is a productive use: any verb which indicates behaviour or action can be used with this pattern. The verbs listed here are the ones which are most frequently used in this way.

    122 Act as if nothing had happened.
    • Some activists now speak as though any attempt to clarify the law is a denial of justice which demands compensation.
    act behave speak talk
    Structure information

    a) The clause after the verb is a new clause, with its own structure.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    Other related patterns
    V as if to-inf

    The verb is followed by the conjunction as if and a to-infinitive clause. The clause indicates what someone seems to be about to do.

    • She made as if to leave.
    make
    16 V and v
    The verb is followed by the conjunction and and another verb of the same tense or form.

    This pattern has two structures:

    • Structure I: Verbs in phase
      Try and lift it.
    • Structure II: Co-ordinated verbs
      Go and find him.
    Structure I: Verbs in phase
    V and v
      Verb groupandverb group  
    SubjectVerb     Completive
    I'll tryandhelpyou.
    Phrasal verbs: V P and v
      Verb groupParticleandverb group  
    SubjectVerb       Completive
    Iwentaheadandboughtit.
    123 The following verbs have this structure.
    • Then he goes and spoils it all by saying that just because something shows up on the graph doesn't mean it will happen.
    • They could go on and win the trophy.
    • I feel that if I say how tired I get and how much I long to stay at home sometimes, David will turn around and say, `I told you so.'
    • One day he just upped and left.
    In the case of try, both verbs are always in the base form.
    • He has started a privatisation programme to try and win support from the business community.
    go try up
    go ahead go on turn around/round
    Structure information: Verbs in phase

    a) The verb is followed by and and another verb group of the same tense or form, without a Subject or any auxiliary verbs. The verbs are in phase, and together form a complex verb group. This means that the actions or states expressed by the two verbs cannot be separated from each other. For example, if you try and remember something, the trying and the remembering are not two processes, but one.

    The complex verb group is followed by a group, phrase, or clause which completes the pattern of the second verb. In the structure tables above, this is called a Completive. For example, if the second verb is normally followed by a noun group, then the Completive of the complex verb group will be a noun group.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.

    Structure II: Co-ordinated verbs
    V and v
      Verb groupandclause
    SubjectVerbCo-ordinatorClause
    I'll goandsee him.
    Phrasal verbs: V P and v
      Verb groupParticleandclause
    SubjectVerb   Co-ordinatorClause
    We've got to sitdownandsort things out.

    This pattern is productive: any two verbs can be co-ordinated with and. The verbs listed here are the ones for which this pattern is most significant, that is, the two verbs are very closely linked, with the focus of information on the second verb.

    • Come and sit down.
    124 He was `greatly troubled' by the use of imitation weapons `because if you are on the receiving end, there isn't time to look and see if the gun is real or not'.
    • We are not going to stand by and watch when they gun our people down.
    • When you stop and think about it, the achievements of the last 20 years in the Classic Car world are stunning.
    In the case of wait, the conjunction and is nearly always followed by the base form see.
    • A spokesman said the surgeons could now only wait and see how things went.
    come go look sit stay stop wait
    go along go out sit by sit down sit up stand back stand by step back
    Structure information: Co-ordinated verbs

    a) The verb is followed by and and a clause whose verb group has the same tense or form as the first verb, but has no auxiliary verbs or Subject. The verb group and the clause are co-ordinated.

    b) This structure has no passive.

    c) The phrasal verb pattern is the same except that there is a particle, P, which comes after the verb.